StearnsChapter6_0004 - Chapter 6 The First Global Civilization The Rise and Spread of Islam I Introduction A Before 7th century contacts but not total

StearnsChapter6_0004 - Chapter 6 The First Global...

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Chapter 6 The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam I. Introduction A. Before 7 th century – contacts, but not total control of ancient world under one empire 1. Arabia – nomadic land on periphery of major civilizations B. 7 th century – followers of Islam “submission” – Muslims – Allah – one God 1. Began conquest and conversion 2. Within decades, Muhammad had empire of Persia, Greece and Egypt C. Later empire spread 1. Merchants, mystics, warriors 2. Empire expanded a. Africa, Asia, southern Europe b. Across steppes to central Asia, western China, south Asia c. Across ocean trade routes to southeast Asia and eastern Africa d. Across overland trade routes, Sahara to western Africa e. Across Asia Minor and into European heartland – rivals Christianity 3. Muslim merchants a. Worked with traders from other regions b. Prime agents for transfer of food crops, technology, and ideas c. Muslim scholars studied, preserved and improved upon learning of Ancient Civs 1. Eventually, Arabic – language of Qur’an would become international language of the educated 4. Would define Middle East and N. Africa until today II. Desert and Town: The Arabian World and the Birth of Islam A. Introduction 1. Geography – unlikely birth of religion – inhospitable desert 2. Bedouin – nomadic culture dominant a. Some towns – Mecca/Medina – merely extensions of Bedouin life 1. Safety of trade routes determined success of cities 2. People linked to kinship 3. Culture a. Focus on clan and family b. language and religion 3. Some coastal trading towns B. Clan Identity, Clan Rivalries, and the Cycle of Vengeance 1. Organization a. kin-related clans group with others to make tribes 1. Only congregate for war, severe crisis 2. Conditions force you to rely on clan – kicked out equals death 3. Life regulated by councils a. shayks – leaders of the tribe/clan 1. has large herds, several wives, many children/retainers b. Ideas of shayks enforced by warriors b. Conflict over pastureland/watering holes 1. Need to defend one’s honor 2. One man’s slight could lead to huge conflict followed by revenge 3. Constant conflicts led to weakened empire – vulnerable to outsiders C. Towns and Long-Distance Trade 1. Small communities of traders emerge 2. Some northern cities become trade links a. Mecca dominates – mountainous region – controlled by Umayyad clan of Quraysh tribe 1. Mecca has Ka’ba – focus of bazaars a. Obligatory truce brought rival groups together
b. Medina – to the north – wells and springs 1. Unlike Mecca, run by five competing families – 2 bedouin, 2 Jewish a. These divisions later help with formation of Islam D. Marriage and Family in Pre-Islamic Arabia 1. Women greater freedom…varied from tribe to tribe a. Key economic roles – milking camel, weaving cloth, raising children b. Unlike Persian neighbors – not covered or secluded c. wrote poetry d. Able to have multiple partners e. Lineage matrilineal 2. …but, men still greater a. Earn status through war/battle b. Creation of cities leads to stratification leads to male dominance

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