Chapter Nine Moving into the Adult Social World: Socioemotional Development in Adolescence
Lecture Outline • Identity & Self-Esteem – Erikson’s theory, Identity Phases • Romantic Relationships & Sexuality – Relationships, Sexual Behavior & Orientation • Work – Part-time jobs, Career development • Negative Outcomes of Adolescence – Drugs, Depression, Delinquency
The Search for Identity • Erikson: identity achievement vs. identity (role) confusion – Balancing between selecting a single self vs. trying out many possible selves • Via formal operational thought, fantasize about various roles and do “trial runs” – Strong focus on career roles – Also focus on talents, romance, friendships, religion, politics, gender orientation, & roles
The Search for Identity • Many teenagers go through various phases when searching for identity – Not sequential like other stage theories – Most in a state of diffusion or foreclosure (see table next slide) – Older teens tend to alternate between moratorium and achievement • These phases don’t only apply to career identities, but also to religion, politics, etc.
Marcia’s Four Identity Statuses
Characteristics of Adolescents’ Thinking • Adolescent egocentrism: recognize other’s feelings, but only care about their own • Imaginary audience: think that peers are constantly watching and judging them – Happens with adults too: Spotlight effect
Characteristics of Adolescents’ Thinking • Personal Fable: teenagers’ tendency to believe no one has ever felt or experienced what they have • Illusion of invulnerability: misfortune only happens to others – Can explain risky choices made by teens • All of these characteristics become less common as teens progress towards identity
Ethnic Identity • About 1/3 of adolescent and young adults belong to an ethnic minority; they typically develop an ethnic identity • Three phases to achieving this identity – Ethnic roots are unimportant to them – Exploring their ethnic heritage’s personal impact and learning cultural traditions – Development of a distinct ethnic self-identity • Generally speaking, having an ethnic identity is beneficial to adolescents
Self-Esteem in Adolescence • Comparisons with peers entering middle school often gradually decreases self-esteem relative to elementary school • As children adjust to this new “pecking order,” their self-esteem increases and then stabilizes during adolescence • Adolescents particularly differentiate their social self-esteem (e.g., positive about parent, but negative about romantic relationships) • Self-worth also varies by ethnicity
Influences on Adolescents’ Self-Esteem • Adolescents’ self-worth is higher when: – They are skilled in domains they value –
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 35 pages?
- Fall '14