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Unformatted text preview: action/adventure games where the player navigates a character through a three-dimensional world, dodging bullets, and shooting bad guys. Consequently, girls and women are at a systematic disadvantage in terms of their ability to control the gaming environment and meet their interpersonal need for control. This certainly is not to say that women and girls simply lack the skill necessary to master video games. In fact, research has shown that preexisting sex differences, including cognitive skills such as mental rotation and maze navigation, are attenuated through practice (e.g., DeLisi & Cammarano, 1996; DeLisi & Wolford, 2002; Lawton & Morrin, 1999). However, the male bias in game design is problematic in that it systematically places female players at an early disadvantage in terms of their ability to control the gaming environment, which creates a vicious cycle in terms of reinforcing an inclusion-affection-control pattern that discourages female players from playing video games. Because they initially may have less control over their performance in the game (...
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- Spring '09