VII - 7 VII. Late Antiquity and the Emergence of the...

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7 VII. Late Antiquity and the Emergence of the Medieval World 4 th Century A. The Late Roman Empire i. The Reforms of Diocletian and Constantine a. Diocletian (284-305) thought that changes in the system need to be changed. b. Political Reforms (Pax Romana ~Augustus thru Marcus Aurelius) 1. Divided the empire into 2 sections: East and West ! Divided into 4 prefectures: 2 in the east, 2 in the west ! Each prefecture had 3 dioceses, run by vicar. ! Also provinces in each diocese 2. Rulers of East and West called Augustus 3. Diocletian had East 4. Maximian had West 5. Also vice-emperor, called a Caesar and when the emperor dies the Vice-emperor would become a empire. 6. Tetrarchy - “rule by 4” 7. Constantine (306-337) takes over an emperor in the west. And then kicks out E. Emperor and aroung 324 AD he combined the E and W again. This is when the office of Emperor was high and might. Senate became pretty much the city hall of ROME. Their was 2 bureaucracy Military and Civilian Bureaucracy. c. Military Reforms 1. 400,000 men 2. Frontier would come behind the Garrison to support the Frontier Garrison. d. Economic and Social Trends 1. Taxes were raised, and city council would be in charge of collecting taxes. If the city council member did not collect enough $ they would have to pay then out of their own Money. So rich people decided that they didn’t want to be a councilor any more. Some councilors ran away, so by this time the emperor mandated that it would be hereditary. Bankers were forced to remain in that job, and it would become hereditary too. Sharecroppers would be bound to the land. Lower classes are paying most of the taxes. Some people didn’t pay taxes because of exemptions, for doing a good deed to the emperor. e. Constantine’s Building Program – raised taxes even more. By this time ROME is in the center of the empire. 1. Byzantium 2. “city of Constantine” - Constantinople closer to the Frontier “Istanbul” ii. The Empire’s New Religion Christian churches in ROME. a. The Conversion of Constantine 1. 313 Edict of Milan - saying that Christianity is OK. 2. Theodosius the Great (378-395) - Christianity official religion b. Organization and Religious Disputes - 1. Christian churches - Bishop - diocese
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2. Archbishop - province 2 3. 4 “great” cities: Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome 4. universal beliefs - “catholic” “universal belief of the church” 5. Arianism - Arius –Preist teaching idea in Alexandria teaching that Jesus was human not GOD. Gets banished, and flees to Germanic tribe area. 6. Bishop of Alexandria - Athanasius Said that Jesus was both human and god. 7.
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course WORLD CIV. 2013 taught by Professor Gradstudent during the Spring '08 term at Arkansas.

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VII - 7 VII. Late Antiquity and the Emergence of the...

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