163_Exam_2_Study_guide-1

163_Exam_2_Study_guide-1 - LIPIDS: Summarize the...

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LIPIDS: Summarize the roles/functions of lipids in the human body. Lipids (cholesterol & phospholipids) form cell membranes and thus provide sturcture. They help regulate metabolism as a components of hormones and bile salts, blood clotting, and Eicosanoids (signaling molecules comprised of omega F.As). Lipids are also an energy source stored in adipose, transported to muscle, glycerol to liver. What are the concerns associated with high fat diets? Increased risk of CHD/CAD, atherosclerosis, angina, ischemia, myocardial infarct, high HDL. Know the difference between saturated, MUFA, PUFA and trans fats. Saturated fats have all ions attached to Cs or Hs. MUFA have 1 double bond, PUFA has 2 or more. Trans fats are chemically treated as hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated, where H ions are added to unsaturated fats, altering their basic structure. Know the impact of each on cholesterol. Saturated fat raises LDL. MUFA (heart-healthiest) can lower LDL, raises HDL. PUFA (2 nd heart healthiest) can lower LDL. Trans FA raises LDL. Know food sources of each type of fat. Saturated- fatty meats (beef/pork). MUFA- olive oil, peanut oil. PUFA- sesame oil, sunflower oil, poultry & fish. Trans- fried foods, margarine, junk food. What is the concern behind Trans fat? Increases risk of CHD, cancer, diabetes, liver dysfunction, infertility. What is cholesterol? How is it made? What is its function? Which foods contain it? A sterol found in cell membranes, manufactured in the liver, trasnported in blood plasma, synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum, forms basic structure of cell. Mainly found in animal products, and saturated fats raise blood cholesterol more than dietary cholesterol. HDL are small and dense, high in protein. What are some specific dietary guidelines to lower serum cholesterol? Generally cut down on all fat, but especially limit intake of animal products in favor of plant products and foods w/ high dietary fiber. Know the route of release of adipose triglycerides. What stimulates release & breakdown?
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163_Exam_2_Study_guide-1 - LIPIDS: Summarize the...

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