Midterm - BIEB 164 MIDTERM 1 SUMMER 1999 There are 8...

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BIEB 164 MIDTERM 1, SUMMER 1999 There are 8 questions, most with several parts. BUDGET YOUR TIME; if you cannot do a question, move on to the next one. 1. (15 points) You are studying the evolution and functional significance of the blue spot on the dewlap of a population of Anolis lizards. Based on data that you have collected, you believe that the size of the color patch is genetically based, because parents and offspring resemble each other. To be sure of this, however, you need to do an experiment in which you cross-foster offspring (i.e. swap half the individuals from nest A into nest B, and vice versa), and then measure patch size of offspring from true nests and foster nests. A. Why do you need to do this experiment? What are the potential alternatives of your cross-fostering experiment? (5 points) Color patch size may be determined by gene x environment interactions, rather than being determined entirely genetically. The cross-fostering experiment allows you to control for coufounding effects of environment in determining patch size. Alternatives: If patch size is genetically based, offspring raised in foster nests will resemble their biological parents and not their foster parents. If patch size is environmentally based, offspring raised in foster nests will resemble their foster parents, and not their biological parents. B. You think the color patch is important in mate choice in this species, because females choose males with large patches. However, this simple association doesn't demonstrate that color patch per se is the actual focus of female choice, and you need to do an experiment in which you manipulate the color patch. Why? (10 points) Color patch size may not be the actual focus of female choice, but instead be correlated with another character that is the real focus of choice. An experiment enables you to eliminate this possibility (e.g. females may be choosing on the basis of body size, which is correlated with color patch size, and your manipulation demonstrates that females are ignoring color patch size altogether).
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2. (15 points) In haplo-diploid insects, females (chromosome complement 2N) come from fertilized eggs and males (1N) come from unfertilized eggs. Haplo-diploidy may predispose these systems to the evolution of eusociality (i.e. coloniality and cooperation between relatives). A. Why? Briefly explain. (5 points)
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Midterm - BIEB 164 MIDTERM 1 SUMMER 1999 There are 8...

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