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Prison and Prisoners Midterm Review

Prison and Prisoners Midterm Review - Prison and Prisoners...

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Prison and Prisoners Midterm Review - Corrections, a Critical Approach -various social forces to interpret punishment -politics- determine how different social classes are treated by the CJ system -not a lot of votes for saying you are going to empty prisons of non violent offenders -economics- play a role through monetary fines and confiscation of property -tendency to exploit cheap labor -pleasure/pain principle -religion or moral- creates belief that offenders ought to be morally reformed or corrected -punitive- claim of vengeance -technology-developed various methods of punishment -i.e.- guillotine and the electric chair -use of surveillance, stun guns, etc. -proportions with numbers (pg. 4-5) -645 per 100,000 = prison population (1997-1998) -list of countries, US is 1, followed by New Zealand, Portugal, and England -24.2- victimization rates per 1,000- index crimes- -2 nd to last in list -use of prisons driven by the 4 social forces -not really going to ask numbers, more going to ask with proportions -annual cause of death (pg.7) –in order - tobacco -alcohol -adverse reactions to prescription drugs -workplace -suicide -illicit drugs -homicide -FBI crime clock -why is it distorted? -a common type of distortion -takes into account only index crimes- not white collar or corporate crimes -it is based on time rather than population -best way to see crime is the crime rate- (# of crimes/total population) X 100,000 -developing an intellectual framework (pg. 14) -question policy makers -What people understand to be the causes of crime (theory of crime) will influence their view of the objective of a correctional system (an ideology of corrections -theories of crime and ideology of corrections determine how offenders are dealt with by the criminal justice system and what the goals of that intervention ought to be (strategy of sentencing) -crime is driven by -conservatives- lack of punishments -outweigh gain=reduce crime
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-strategy in form of punishment -white collar- i.e. 700 billion dollar bailout -judge usually has wide discretion of sentencing -have to have fair strategy for sentencing -crime x= punishment x -purpose of prisons – deter crime -how are we going to do it? -social forces -leading ideology of imprisonment -Manama dharma Astra- ancient Sumerian codes of India -“Eye for an Eye, and a Tooth for a Tooth” -believed to be first written legal codes -aka- Code of Hammurabi -the idea was of retribution -code of revenge -lex talionis -principle behind various forms of retribution -provides rationale for mutilations -apotropaic punishment -punishment meant to ward off evil -beheading -collective punishment -people banning together to carry out punishment -when individual urge to avenge a crime and social pressure to fulfill a tradition merge, this brutal type of retribution is formed -i.e.- lynching, the firing squad, and the Halifax gibbet -The EARLIEST form of punishment -stoning -some say it had sacrificial functions -others say it had a cleansing effect on the community -Greeks said stoning removed pollution from society -people really vent anger through collective punishment
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