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SOCL 2001 (Exam 2)

SOCL 2001 (Exam 2) - SOCL 2001 1 Exchange Theory in...

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SOCL 2001 2-12-07 Exchange Theory – in considering any course of action we look at the benefits and weigh them against the risks; we do this when we join groups 1. The norm of reciprocity – when we get something from someone else it creates an obligation to give something back 2. Benefits, but also obligations Us vs. Them – groups we belong to versus groups we don’t belong to Us = Ingroups Them = Outgroups 1. Attribution Theory a. Very simple promise b. We make judgments on other people based on what we “know” about them 2. We talk about different categories of people (certain race, teens, etc) 3. Make attributions about their actions and the causes of those actions 4. Internal Causation a. Attributing something to the internal traits of a person b. Moral judgment 5. External Causation a. Attribute a persons actions and the results of those actions to forces outside of the individual b. We make immoral judgment about this person We attribute our successes to internal causation and we attribute our failures to external causation. For outgroups, we do the opposite by attributing their failures to internal causes and attribute their successes to external causes. Ingroups want to take all of the credit when they do good. When something goes wrong, they have nothing to do with it. Asch’s Conformity Theory Subjects were asked to pick out which line on card 1 matched the line on card 2. 100% got it correct. Then subjects were placed in a room with research workers who gave the wrong answer. The subjects then started giving the wrong answer as well. After the experiment was over, the subjects were asked why they gave the wrong answer. 50% said because the others gave the wrong answer, while the other 50% claims they didn’t know it was the wrong answer. 1
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SOCL 2001 Groupthink – people in groups make bad/wrong decisions 1. Ethnocentrism – thinking our group is better; aura of invincibility 2. Xenophobia – if we’re the best, everything else is less than us which leads us to discount outside advice and “demonize” our enemies (bring harm to them) 3. Discouragement of dissent – if someone doesn’t agree with the government, we call them unpatriotic etc. 4. Appearance of unanimity – once a group makes a decision they want the world to think it’s a unanimous decision. This lets individuals of the group “hide” so they don’t have to take responsibility – they can just blame it on the group. 5. “Risky Shift” – when in a group, individuals will make riskier decisions and engage in riskier behavior 2-14-07 Formal Groups – Have rules for membership, rules about joining and maintaining a member. 3 Types of formal groups: 1. Utilitarian organization – join for a material reward 2. Normative organization – join because we believe in the goal of that organization (political parties, churches, etc) 3. Coercive organizations – we don’t have a choice about becoming a member (jail, mental institutions, etc) Bureaucracies – large and complex organizations that share special features.
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