SOCL 2001 (Exam 1)

SOCL 2001 (Exam 1) - SOCL 2001 1 Basic Definition Sociology...

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SOCL 2001 1-19-07 Basic Definition Sociology is the scientific study of social life Product of the Industrial Revolution; dramatically changed the way people lived (very disruptive) 1700s People began to wonder why they were having problems; it was the “Age of Reason” First Sociologists Debate on who actually was the first 1. Auguste Compte (1849) 2. Adam Smith (1776) a. “Wealth of Nations” b. Argued for free market economics (“Laissez Faire” – leave it alone) c. Leave the economy alone and it will regulate itself d. “Invisible hand” – Market is a share of supply and demand. Goods are available in decent quality and quantity at a fair price. e. “High division of labor” (wealth of nations) – Everyone is specialized at what they do. Assembly line production changed this. Smith said this was a far more efficient way. Changes society as a whole. 3. Herbert Spencer (founding father of sociology) a. Doctor and Biologists – interested in Darwin’s work and used some of his analogies. b. If something goes wrong with one part, it will affect the other parts. Complex theory called “Structural Functionalism” 4. Talcott Parsms a. Major theories of Sociology b. Developed “Structural Functionalism” ( A theory off of Spencer’s ideas) c. Robert K. Merton (Parsms’ grad student) tried to address criticisms of Parsms’ work. Said you could find functional and dysfunctional aspects of society. i. Ex. Cars provide transportation, but pollute air. (function and dysfunctional at the same time) “Manifest Functions” – Education system; Manifest function is to teach. Latent Functions” – Functions that lie beneath the service. Most people don’t think about them. Education laws are keeping people in school to keep job demand down. Governing laws of human behavior – when something goes wrong, we can figure out WHY and fix it. “Theories of the Middle Range” – Develop small theories on certain aspects (not going to happen now). Grand theory building has been a lost art. The way things are, are the way they’re always going to be. 5. Karl Marx a. Took a different view of social life – not about everything running smoothly, it is about the conflict. 1
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SOCL 2001 b. “Economic Determinism” – Economy’s shape and form determines society. A person’s position in society is determined by one thing: their relation to the means of production. c. Capitalist system is based on profits. Wage workers are getting full benefits of their labor. Workers are going to ban together – has not happened yet. d. 2 nd Major Theory developed by Marx – “Conflict Theory” Subordinate positions manage to overthrow. Marx endured criticisms. 6.
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SOCL 2001 (Exam 1) - SOCL 2001 1 Basic Definition Sociology...

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