Introduction to Anatomy and PhysiologyOrgan Systems:Integumentary System:(Function: Body Covering - includes skin and accessory organs (i.e. hair,nails, sweat and subcutaneous glands)Skeletal System: (Function: Support and Movement - consists of bones, ligaments, cartilage)Muscular System: (Function: Support and Movement - consists of muscles)Nervous System: (Function: Integration and Coordination - consists of brain, spinal cord, nervesand sense organs)Endocrine System: (Function: Integration and Coordination - includes all the glands that secretehormones)Cardiovascular System:(Function: Transport - includes heart, arteries, veins, capillaries andblood)Lymphatic System: (Function: Transport - composed of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus,spleen and lymph fluid)Digestive System:(Function: Absorption and Excretion - includes the mouth, tongue, teeth,salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine andlarge intestine.Respiratory System:(Function: Absorption and Excretion - consists of the nasal cavity, pharynx,larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs)Urinary System: (Function: Absorption and Excretion - consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinarybladder and urethra)Reproductive System: (Function: Reproduction) (male: consists of scrotum, testes, epididymites,ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, penis and urethra)(Female consists of ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris and vulva)MetabolismMetabolism:the sum of all the chemical reactions in the body that break substances down andbuild them up.. The reactions of metabolism allow us to acquire and use energy to fuel life processes.
Homeostasis. Three things are required to keep the body’s internal environment stable:1.Set Point2.Receptors3.EffectorsFeedback Loops:Positive Feedback Loop:Moves the internal conditions away from a normal state.Negative Feedback Loop:Moves the internal conditions back toward a normal state.Anatomical Position:. The body standing erect, facing forward, with the upper limbs at the sides and the palmsforward.Relative Positions:Superior:a body part is above anotherInferior:a body part is below anotherAnterior:toward the frontPosterior:toward the backMedial:closer to the midlineLateral:toward the side (away from the midline)Bilateral:paired structures, one on each sideIpsilateral:structures on the same sideContralateral:structures on opposite sidesProximal:closer to a point of attachment to the trunkDistal:farther from a point of attachment to the trunkSuperficial:near the surfaceDeep:more internal
CHAPTER 5 – TISSUESCells:The basic units of structure and function in the human organism.• Each type of tissue is composed of similar cells specialized to carry on a particularfunction.