This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm JHI 1300 Dr. Leo Landman F214 Syllabus: Topics Discussed: -readings for each topics -not all are required -required readings for info not covered in class -Q's on midterm, final, on readings -Midterm = 40% of test grade, Final = 60% of test grade -not cumulative -participation -Term Paper -any topic w/in time period -list of suggested topics -worth 10% of grade J = Jews RG = Raysh Gelusa SG = Sa'adya Gaon Anan = Anan ben David Theo = Theodosis, Emperor of Rome R'Gersh = Rabbaynu Gershom, M'Or HaGola 1/24/00 Intro to Medieval Philosophical Thought I. Time Period A-not know when began, or when ended -1-assessment of limits made after time period B-diff. from middle ages C-Known as Dark Ages D-Era Length--abt. 1000 years -1-Began: -a-6th century -b-7th century-632 CE-conquest of Europe by Moslems -2-Ended -a-ended in year 1500 -b-as late as 17th century E-Between Classical & Renaissance Period -1-most historians feel periods should be known by own accomplishments, not in comparison to other eras F-Diff. from Modern -1-Church dominated life & religious thought -2-philo -a-concerned with search for G-d's Truth & will of G-d -b-philo's tried to synthesize relig. thought with Greek & Roman thought Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 1 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman II. Diff. for Jews than other peoples A-lived under Xian & Moslem rule -1-Kings, Kalifs -2-stemmed from Judaism, but claimed Jews distorted true relig. -3-deliberately oppressed Jews, each for own reasons Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm B-Xian oppression -1-rejeciton of faith -a-Jews rejected Xian relig. & crucified Yeshu -b-claimed J spiritually blind by using false & illegal relig. -c-J felt that worshiping Trinity = A"Z -2-made set rules, so J knew what not to violate -a-pogroms more "predictable" -b-J persecuted for usury towards Xians -also forced into peddling b/c couldn't own land or go into business -c-J not allowed to join guilds or work -d-J couldn't own land, so couldn't farm -e-J had high taxes -C-Jewish Views of Xianity -1-Tos. Felt Trinity = A"Z for Jews, not for Goyim -2-Meiri-Trinity used to be A"Z; now = have ideologies that aren't paganism D-Relevance in Jewish law -1-Napoleon's Sanhedrin & 12 Q's -a-Sanhedrin composed of relig. & non-relig. Jews -b-asked abt. marriage -dep. if considered Akum or not -some cited Meiri as allowance for intermarriage ("Lo Tischaten Bam") -c-R' Dovid Sinsheimer-chas v'shalom to marry them & have social intercourse -2-Gemara: Grapes & Wine trampled (pressed) by Akum -a-Goyim worked in Jewish fields -b-R' Tam-mutar b/c don't know how to be minasech yayin -c-R"I-assur b/c status doesn't change -d-all regarding business law & issur v'heter E-Moslem oppression -1-rejections of faith -a-J rejected Mohammed, Koran -b-accused J of falsifying Torah texts -2-lived side by side, but Moslems lacked set rules -a-J never knew when to expect pogroms by Moslems F-Conversions -1-most J's refused to convert & therefore died G-Jews considered separate group & ID as Jews -1-rest of goyim thought J should not maintain own culture H-Jewish Economics -1-oppressed by gov't and self-hating J's -a-"blaming the victim" -2-theories -a-usury from J culture -b-J's like to exploit -c-J naturally sly Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 2 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman Jews Under Islam I. Centers of Learning & Jewish Rulers A-under Moslem rule B-traced to Shivas Tziyon 586 BCE C-also traced to Resh Galusa -1-first Resh Galusa = Rav Huna HaResh Galusa -contemporary of Rebbe -2-R' Nachman-his father was probably Resh Galusa -had symbol of authority: Mace, rod -3-as important as Nassi, but in charge of galus Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm D-under Parthian & Sessanian (211CE) -1-RG represented J to Goyim -2-appointed judges -3-appointed to... -4-collected taxes -a-also had to pay taxes to Persian gov't E-Iggeres Rav Sh'rira Gaon (Levine's ed. 73-74) -1-aliya of Ezra & Zerubavel had heads of Sanhedrin--Majority From Bavel -2-spread Torah, RG from Bais Dovid existed at time of Hillel HaZaken -3-through Rebbe's death, RG's ruled in Bavel, but the Roshay Misivasa did not -4-implications: -a-family of RG stemmed from Bais Dovid -proof: Yerushalmi Gem. Ta'anis 4:2, from later period -b-office of RG existed from beg. Of 2nd BHMK -5-problem: -a-have not history of anyone in this position a the time of beg. of 2nd BHMK -family of RG stemmed from Bais Dovid F-Sources for R' Sh'rira Gaon -1-Yerushalmi Gem. Ta'anis 4:2, from later period -a-geneological scroll stating yichus of Tana'im -Hillel descendent of Dovid... -Rav Chiyya dec. from Sh'fatya ben Avital (Dovid's wife) -Rebbe from Dovid -2-Kesubos 62b: -a-Rebbe arranged marriage of his daughter to Rav Chiyya (Tanna from Bavel) -b-daughter died during writing sh'tar -c-examined yichus, found that Rav Chiyya descended from Shimi, Dovid's brother; Rebbe from Sh'fatya -d-therefore marriage deemed not suitable -3-theory: scroll originally only had Hillel on it, and others put own names down -a-we don't have scroll itself; if could, could compare handwriting styles G-Individuals who claimed from Bais Dovid -1-Chashmonaim -2-Herodians-through Chashmonaim mother -3-Yeshu-red bearded like Dovid -Yeshua ben Pantera-pantera = derogatory term for panther; belongs to mamzer -4-Rebbe -5-Rav Chiyya -6-RG 1/26/00 Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 3 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman II. Resh Galusa (RG ) During Amoraim A-RG had high authority B-Title "Rav" -1-title from Yeshivos, not RG -2-needed dual appointment to be Judge -a-from Rosh Yeshivos -b-from RG -3-diff. bet. Judge & Rav -a-Rav penalized if made judgement mistake, whereas Judge not Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm C-Disputes amongst Courts -1-thought they didn't know enough even if appointed by RG -2-R' Nachman, Rabbah bar Avuha appointed by RG -a-shows 1 untrue b/c surely knew how to learn -3-Sukkah 10b--??? -4-Courts not appointed by RG = tolerated by RG courts b/c needed them -a-had same rules & halachos as RG courts -b-RG courts had backing of RG & state, so didn't need to pay if made errors -c-other courts had to pay if erred--Lav Minaichu ...??? -5-Problems -a-all courts really subject to RG, although some more then other -6-Dunath--Divray Yimay Am Olam -a-intermingled time periods--took info of ...??? -1-by 4th century, all calendar matters sent to Bavel, but not to RG -2-Gem. R"H 19(?)--sent to Mar Ukvra, a Gaon Rosh Yeshiva (= Amorai) ??? (R' Acha'i Gaon mentioned in gem., from 8th century--put his own comments in ) D-Rav Nachman's lifetime E-Appointment of RG -1-had to pay for appointment, so accused of buying position -a-really not, b/c hereditary by laws of yerusha and simply payed a fee -2-induction ceremony recorded by _________? -a-Dovid ben Zakkai, appointed 920 -b-conducted in Arabic -c-resembled coronation -3-Nosson HaBavli--RG Ceremony -a-choir sang -b-when entered room, ppl. stood until he sat on tower -c-R"Y of Sura entered, bowed to RG & sat at right of throne -d-R"Y of Pump. Entered, bowed to RG, sat at left of throne -e-chazan pronounced b'racha softly, only few heard it F-Power of RG -1-3-4th cent., very powerful -2-power waned, Roshay Yeshivos (RY) become more powerful -3-by Gaonim's time, RG had more power than in beginning -a-appointed Gaonim (= RY), Judges, B"D -b-deposed judges -c-power ran outside J community -d-chain of succession over 1000 years III. RG during time of Gaonim (=RY) A-11th cent.--very weak. Causes: -8 versions of what happened to cause the following -2-Bustanai-under Islam, was given wife from defeated Persian emporor -a-wife given to him as slave, but needed to give get shichrur in order to marry her -not known if she did go free b4 marriage -b-caused lineage of RG to be Q'd Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 4 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman -3-R' Sa'adya Gaon-not from RG lineage -a-strong willed, fought with RG -b-was deposed by RG for poskining against him Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm D-8th cent. = Beginning of Yeshivos Rise E-Yarchei Kallah--started in Gem. Time, became strong in 8th cent. -1-Adar & Elul learning sessions -2-Gaon & Yeshivos chose mesechta to learn for next 5 months -3-included both rabbanim & layman together -a-proof = stated diff. in p'sak for diff. types of ppl. -1-powerful b/c RG weakened & ppl. sent RY's sh'aylos -2-Gaonim added t'filla to Shabbos davening = Yakum Purkan -3-Gaonim sometimes served as RG's to appoint next RG F-Sura & Pumpidisa -1-Sura = far from Bahgdad, so didn't interfere with RG (who was there) -2-Pump. = 40 mi. from Bag. -a-R' Natronai (1st RY by that name), ruled with iron fist b/c no threat from father in law, RG -caused many ppl. learning in Pump to leave for Sura -3-8th cent.-R' Achaii, author of Sh'iltos -a-not appointed at first time tried for RY, got it 2nd time -b-style of writing of all s'fray p'sak in Sh'iltos style until Rambam -4-dissension bet. R"Y -a-had t'filla for peace bet. schools -b-Sura considered higher rank -RG addressed Gaon of Sura as Gaon, but not Pump -c-Gaon of Sura received all kibudim first -d-1006 CE, Kohen Tzeddek, Gaon of Pump, wanted peace & equality -achieved by R' Hai Gaon's time -5-Minhagim -a-Sura-followed minhagay of E"Y -b-Pump-indep, followed minhagay Bavel -6-Shu"T -a-only Gaon could actually write Teshuvos -7-served as Av Bais Din -a-from 6 families -b-known as Dayyana D'Bava b/c courts held outside yeshivos -8-seating in Yeshivos -a-7 rows of 10 students, with Gaon at head, like Sanhedrin -b-in 1st row, 7 were called Roshay Kallah, called Aloofs -other 3 were Chavarim -c-Aloof's each taught to ppl in back, called mishanim -mishanim taught kids mishnayos G-Yemen & Tichiyas HaMaysim -1-Temanim asked sh'ayla to Shmuel ben Eli Gaon-RY and Rambam -2-Rambam-Ma'amar T'chiyas HaMaysim-dismisses Gaonim's ideas based on gem. -3-Gaonim issues fiats (decrees) even though weakened against Rambam's ideas -a-wrote T'shivos Gaonay Mizrach u'Maariv -said what they poskined was law, not to reject it or change it -b-Chemday G'niza-whoever disputes gaonim is like warring vs. HASHEM H-End of Gaonic Time Period -1-Gaonim lasted through 1200's -a-sh'ailos recorded in Shmuel ben Eli, Rambam -2-Daniyyel b. Chizkiyah, gaon -a-successor's letter to Rambam read aloud, ppl. stood in respect -3-Azarya ____ & Dovid b. Hodaya called themselves Nassi, although held same position as RG Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 5 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman -a-Gaonim lasted until 1341 & 1376 1/31/00 Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm IV. Nigud & Naggid A-RG ruled entire galus from Baghdad -1-when RG office ended, regional leaders, Naggidim, took over B-Naggid's Origins & End -1-usually rose from court physician, counselor to Moslem court, kativ-royal scribe -a-had done communal service in other areas, and Kalif therefor chose him -2-appointed either with or without Jewish community's approval -a-some had yichus to RG's, others not -b-some were learned, others not -c-basically an administrator; always observant Jews from Rabbinate (/= Rabbis) -3-full title: Naggid Am Kel -a-1st used by Shimon HaChashmoni -b-HaNaggid = "ethnarchus" in Greek; -"Ethnark" = position lower than a king -c-next to use title = Mar Ukva (see above) -his cong. Brought S"T to him in shul -d-Rambam's family given title -never considered self as Naggid -4-1517-Turks conquered ______, Naggid title stopped -a-Ya'akov Ibn Chaim Tamid vs. Betzalael Ashkenazi (not theShittah Mikubetzes) -b-gov't abolished title to avoid getting involved in fight -1-non-titular Naggid but fulfilled same role -2-family -a-silk merchant family -3-Kalif's appointment -a-imprisoned YiY soon, b/c refused to collect taxes from Jews -4-Avraham Ibn Daud (not Raavad that's against Rambam) -a-author of Sefer HaKabbalah -b-Chanoch, main opponent of YiY, mourned his death b/c YiY supported the poor C-Yaakov Ibn Yan (10-11th cent) D-Ceremony -1-said following phrase-a-gave kavod to memory of RG position -b-said powers of ruling from RG E-Position -1-served as RG -a-issued cherem -b-officiated marriages -c-acted as judges -d-ruled over Rabbinate, Karaites, Shomronim V. Chacham Bashi--in Turkey A-Sultan Mechmed II conq'd. Constantinople 1453 B-SultM2 appointed Moshe Capsali -1-wrote T'shuvas -2-represented J in imperial counsel -3-practical to keep 1 person responsible for relig. community -a-did same for Greek Ortho church C-title Chachom Bashi -a-Chachom = S'fardic title for Rav -b-Bashi = Turkish title "Pasha" mispronounced by Arabs (can't pronounce P's) Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 6 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman D-power -1-ruled only in Constantenople Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm VI. Jews in Moslem state A-no single approach to studying time -1-Sa'adya Gaon and other writers represent own opinions and viewpoints, not representative of general opinion at time B-most lay ppl. didn't write, so don't know their opinions -1-pp. Dissatisfied with Moslem courts -a-corrupt, took invalid & dishonest witnesses -b-all lay ppl. disliked courts & denounced them--Xians, J, Moslems alike -c-when Rabbanim critiqued courts, did so for 2 reasons: -i-corrupt -ii-wanted J to go to B"D instead -2-Baghdad courts honest -a-sh'taros accepted in B"D -b-gave kavod & tolerated other spokesmen from diff. relig. groups -3-10-11th cent, ppl. started writing C-Crusades 1096 onwards -1-Age of Tolerance, 9-10th cent, ended -a-J caught bet. 2 warring relig. -2-Rambam--Iggeres to Chachmay Lunel (S. France.)--in Shu"T Rambam -a-said cultural future of J in West, under Xian D-Political Problems -1-Prof. Goithein-relig. ppl. shunned gov't service, thought it opposed G-d's Will -2-J refused to eat with gov't officials b/c corrupt -a-Gem. Says that their food is from oppressing poor ppl. & extortion -3-most ppl. felt that the state = G-d willed institution -a-"Divine Rights of Kings"--J believed kings got power from G-d -source B"M 13a (?) -b-ppl. didn't criticized leaders or gov't b/c feared retribution -c-employed flattery towards Arabs -d-instituted prayers for Shalom Medina -e-humans = social animal, need structure -4-J accepted Shmuel's statement of Dina d'Malchusa Dina -a-Chazal limited it to monetary matters -taxes -b-new limitations made by Gaonim & Rishonim -Teshuvos HaGaonim-sultan appointed by G-d -c-Ran-Nedarim 28a -davka with Malchay Akum b/c the land is his & can exile BN"Y -not applies to Malchay Yisrael, b/c all J are shutafim in it -d-R' Elazar M'Mintz-Akum's land so can tell us what to do -e-Rashbam-B"B 54a-when move into new place, give up certain rights and privileges for betterment of group -Joc Rousseau-said Rashbam's statement 700 years later-called it Social Contract -5-Limitations to DmD: -a-shaveh lakol-can't just be law against J -b-not rules of spec. king, but entire historical gov't. 2/2/00 -6-Rambam' DmD Limitations: G'zayla 5:17-18 Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 7 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm -a-applies when kings' coins accepted throughout land, indic. Acceptance of king and of his sovereignty -b-if not accepted, then he's a gazlan & listim, and no need to follow -7-Muslim laws -a-dhidi-Arabic term for protected non-Muslim subjects of Muslims -b-extracted heavy taxes for this protection -if not paid, took away lands or tortured wife -c-T'shuva Gaonim-Harkavi 346-abt. giving false get to wife in order to get out of very high taxes -i-as divorcee, not responsible for husbands debts, so couldn't claim $ -ii-later reunited and joined monies again -iii-only allowed in extreme cases of extreme taxes The Karaites & Sa'ayda Gaon I. R' Sa'adya Gaon A-Mission in Life: to unite all Jewery -1-battled Karaiyim -a-Chivi al Balchi-Karai leader -2-battled Jews -a-ben Meir-b-Dovid b. Zakkai-3-facilitate Hebrew amongst J -a-wrote Emunos v'Dayos -i-def. J vs. Xianity -ii-repudiate all heretical teachings -iii-reconcile Judaism w/general secular philo. In method (not content) -iv-rational philo. -b-Siddur -unify world J through single form of prayer -4-did not specialize in particular area of J life & disciplines -a-wanted to serve J community through all aspects of J culture -b-also wrote payrush on Sefer Yetzira, to show that even at rationalist, still accepted mysticism -some claim he was founder of Medieval Kabbalah; FALSE B-R' Sa'adya (882- ) Writings -1-902, wrote Egron, a philological treatise (on origin of language) -2-905, wrote treatise vs. Anan b. David, founder of Karaism C-Calendar -1-sources -a-Nassan HaBavli -b-R' Sh'rira Gaon -2-through 4th cent., Chodesh was made by r'iya -a-in hands of Chachamy E"Y -b-Chochmay Bavli tried to take command, were rejected by bans -3-Rav vs. Shmuel -a-Shmuel knew Rakiya like knew streets of Nahardaya -i-set up calendar for 6 months. (one cycle) -ii-sent to Rav, said he could now make calendar forever, from Bavel -b-Shmuel wanted to not be dependent on Rav in E"Y -i-Rav said to stop relying on calendar, or else Shmuel would be branded "Zaken Mamray" -ii-wanted to keep power of Chodesh in E"Y -iii-Zaken Mamray = Sanhedrin member who votes against San., and poskins like it vs. San. Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 8 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm -iv-i.e. Shmuel would be against entire Chochmay E"Y, and likened to Z"M -4-internal workings -a-standard shana p'shuta: 354 day lunar year -b-sometimes chassar year nec. w/353 -c-sometimes malay year w/355 -d-if need p'shuta, Cheshvan & Kislev standard to 29 & 30 days -e-if need chasser, Cheshvan & Kislev changed to 29 days each -f-if need malay, Cheshvan & Kislev changed to 30 & 30 days -5-determining when Chasser/Malay, dep. on 4 Dichiyos/Sh'arim (postponements/gates) rules -a-Gate to New Year-R"H can only fall out on 4 days of the week: M, T, Th, Sh -b-lo adu rosh-can't be on S, W, F -i-reason for not S: Hoshana Rabbah can't be on Shabbos b/c need aravos -ii-reason not W: Y"K on F, and can't cook for Shabbos -iii-reason not F: Y"K on Sunday, can't prep. For it, and Hoshana Rabbah on Shabbos -c-Gem. R"H 20a -if New Moon seen on these days, R"Ch = next day -need to seen Moon b4 noon time for R"H to be that day -if see New Moon after chatzos, R"H = next day -if see NM on Shabbos, aydus given, R"H on Monday, 2 days later -6-923, it was anticipated that would need 2 day dichiya -a-NM of Tishray would have been on Shabbos just past Chatzos -b-Elul would have 31 days, which would be impossible -c-made adjustment in year b4 by making Chashvan & Kislev malay D-Ben Meir -1-Sura & Pump. Lost power -2-wanted to take control over calendar -a-wanted to restore authority to E"Y -b-wanted to fix rift bet yeshivos -c-3-claimed yichus to Bais Dovid -4-attacked Calendar w/following possible (FALSE) reasons: -5-attacks: -a-wanted to change rule, that if NM happened <35 min. after chatzos, it should still not be postponed -R"H would have remained on Shabbos -b-R' Sh'rira-NM on Shabbos, just after Chatzos -c-b.M said that since less than 641 of chalakim, not to postpone R"H until Monday -d-no explanation y b.M chose this exact time span -6-2 explanations of y b.M did this: -a-to partly offset (35 of 56 min.)diff. of Chatzos bet. Bavel & Y"m, b/c chachomim based on Bavel -problem: not possible--r'iya clearly based on Y"m time in Shas -b-Epstein-wanted to reduced total # of Dichiyos -7-G'niza Scrolls explanation -a-protesting power of Ibur HaShana of Chochmay E"Y -8-RG alarmed by b.M's calculations -a-told him to stop calculations -b-b.M didn't, sent letters to J to follow him -c-chochmay Bavel sent letters to bM, to tell him not to make J violate Tishray as they did Pesach in Nissan -9-Sa'adya's Role-atkd. bM abt. power of controlling J life -a-said that Chochmay Bavel had been setting calendar & had power to do so E-Rambam Hil' R"H 2 -1-wrote on r'iya methods -2-perplexed by those who say that calendar alone, not r'iya at all Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 9 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm -a-said R' Sa'adya wrote vs. bM, not with truth nec., but in order to disprove him & destroy his arguments 2/7/00 F-SG Appointed Aloof 927 CE -1-b.Meir advised against this -2-RG needed SG as aloof, did so even though knew it was trouble -3-RG made SG take shavua: -a-not to takes sides against RG in halachic arguments -b-not to call anybody else RG G-Caused Ill Will -1-had strict rules abt. usury-ribbus -a-had friends in banking -needed them to raised funds -b-held that it was assur to take ribbis from goyim!!! -chumra -c-felt that taking ribbis from goyim was destructive to J -3-idea: in every generation of Jewry, there is a sage fitting to unite all J -a-ppl. thought he spoke abt. himself (probably did) -b-distinctions put on ppl., just like certain days which are distinct w/special mitzvos/issurim -c-upset RG, b/c thought would usurp his rule -3-all these lead to ben Zakkai problem H-RG ben Zakkai (RGbZ) -1-when poskined, needed affirmation from both Gaonim -2-brought case to SG for confirmation -a-case of 7000 dinar -b-SG wanted to avoid issue, hoped it would go to other gaon and would veto it -c-if other gaon would veto, SG would not have to rule on it -3-historians a the time wrote abt. dispute -a-Nassaan HaBavli-historian-in favor of SG -b-Sh'rira Gaon-historian-neutral -c-Dovid Ibn Daud (Ra'avad historian)-violently vs. RG -4-RGbZ's son tried to fix problem -a-then tried to threaten him -b-SG's attendants through him out -5-1st year of controversy, SG deposed RGbZ -a-b/c RGbZ went against halacha -b-appointed new RG, Chassan Moshe -c-wrote Sefer HaGollalim -against ppl. who wrote p'skay halacha w/o enough knowledge -d-RGbZ deposed SG, had to hide in Baghdad 932-933 -lasted for 6 years -6-isolation years -a-siddur -b-Emunos v'Dayos -c-reconciled w/RGbZ b/c of public opinion -i-not liked SG deposed -ii-not approved of RGbZ being atk'd. -7-later years -a-took softer tone -b-died 942 CE I-Philosophy -1-Religious Rationalism-1st to prove philosophy Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 10 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm -a-used Greek & Arab philo -b-Emunos v'Dayos written in Arabic -1st philo work since Aristotle -2-corresponded with Yitzchak Yisraeli, oculist -a-SG wrote on medicine -3-idea: 3 ways of revelation (ITT) -a-Intellect-can provide own concepts to be able to comprehend Tradition and Torah -b-Tradition (non-mystical Kabbalah)-c-Torah-need to acquire above so can acquire Torah -4-Q on this: For what do you need Mattan Torah if you can get it from Intellect? -a-Rambam's 2 answer in Moreh Nevuchim: -i-not everybody is a philo -chukim = G'zaras HaKasuv/HaMelech -ii-takes time until philo figures out all tennants & reasons & needs to be chayav in mitzvos b4hand -b-SG-need Mattan Torah to confirm reason (-c-Mendelsohn-need reason to confirm Torah) -5-Man's Intellect rooted in history: makes new items, and makes life easier -a-man central to all Creation, making him special in world -i-needs to arrive at Ratzon HKBH through own reasoning -ii-man preserves past, perceives most of future -iii-uses intellect to cause beasts to do work -iv-makes wells to plant -v-makes wheels to travel -vi-man makes art -b-man diff. then rest of creation b/c uses intellect to control world -c-Koheles 6:1-"I've seen all things under sun, and they are all foolishness & vexation of spirit" -i-Sh'lomo not speaking abt. deeds -ii-when deeds assoc. w/HKBH, are harmonious; when not, intellect alone can lead one astray -6-4 Proofs for Creation of World (only doing one) -a-opposite of Creation: Eternity of world -b-if world existed from eternity, then infinite time must have elapsed to this point in time -c-said this was impossible b/c infinities of time overlaps (ERROR) -each sub-division of time has infinity of -d-didn't understand diff. sizes infinity (alef null et. al.) -7-Unity of HASHEM -a-if there are 2+ gods omnipotent, either one can do everything -or one needs the other -b-if neither is capable of creating w/o the other, not gods -c-if one can create and other cannot, other is not omnipotent -8-Division of Mitzvos -a-sichliyos-rational, must be recog. By every human being, goy and J alike -murder = rational -b-shimiyos-M'Pi HaSh'muos-traditional-not inherently right or wrong, but are made so by HKBH -i-imposed in order to increase reward for ppl. -ii-even these are rational -Shabbos-resting allows us to learn & daven better A-rise of Islam in 7th cent CE B-J began to Q traditions II-Controversy with Karaites & Anan ben Dovid -1-saw how Islam changed over time, cast off practices Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 11 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman -2-J wanted to do so also Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm C-Anan b. Dovid -1-talmid of R' Yehudai Gaon -2-uncle Yitzchak, father David -a-Yitzchak appointed RG -3-Anan considered self crown prince, obnoxious -a-suspected of heretical leanings -4-when father died, gaonim passed over him to younger brother Chananya, 7__ -5-Kalif approved Chanaya, Anan rej. It, thrown in jail -6-in prison, met Muslim jurist-Abu Chanifa -a-advised Anan to declare self leader of new sect -b-to join with bMeir, run calendar by r'iya -c-Kalif would be sympathetic to this, b/c Arabs follow r'iya 2/9/00 D-Anan's Philo: each person decides what religiosity is -1-prob: impossible to have communal life -a-no regard for Chachomim -2-adhered to literal Tanach -3-applied R' Yishmael's 13 rules -a-kal v'chomer -b-binyan av -c-g'zera shava-very often -4-made drashos w/many words -a-including word "es" -b-Chazal in Gem. Said that "es" was superfluous -5-used many methodologies of Chazal E-Chachomim disagreed especially w/g'zera shava -1-b/c need mesorah for it F-Anan's Rulings for Karaites & Minhagim -1-did not deny fact that need to be doresh -a-instead wanted to be doresh differently than Chazal -2-wanted to find more depth through drashos -3-not ascetics -a-fasted etc. -4-made many new issurim -a-life became unbearable to strongest followers -5-e.g. issur like eating during Ramadam -a-decreed fast for many consecutive days -b-13th Adar-23rd Nissan -6-e.g. "Lo sivaru aish b'chol moshvosaychem" -a-prohibited to have any fire burning in house, even if was light b4 Shabbos -b-sh'ayla: if leave fire burning from Friday, can you put it out? -i-one issur of kibbuy vs. constant issurim of light fire -c-rejection of Medrash Tanchuma: oneg = hadlakas nayros -d-rejection of Mishnah Bameh Madlikin: women die in childbirth if not light candles -7-rej. Essay Docheh Lo Ta'assay -a-no hierarchy in mitzvos -b-no bris on Shabbos -c-Karban Pesach not docheh Shabbos -8-Matzah-Lechem Oni = s'irim (barley), not chittim (wheat) -a-chittah = chametz -9-no issur of bassar v'chalev -a-didn't eat meat anyway, b/c no BHMK -10-assur to drink wine Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 12 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm -a-didn't drink anyway, b/c no BHMK -b-no issur of yayyin nesech -11-lo adu Pesach -a-can't fall out on S, W F -12-"b'chavesh uvachatzir" -a-said sex was assur on shabbos b/c "planting seed" -13-vayihyu l'bassar achas -a-chassan's relatives can't marry kallah's relatives -14-t'fillin eliminated -15-davenning 2x daily -a-substituted passages of t'hillim for t'filla -b-said Sh'ma -16-Gentile/Jew separation -a-goyim couldn't warm water for Jews -17-"al yaytzay ish mimkomo" -a-can't leave house on Shabbos -18-Gerim milah -a-only ger can circumcise new gerim -19-Es chokosai tishmoro (Sh'mos 19) -a-next to k'layim, b/c J should segregate from goyim -b-Ezra 10:11-not marrying "amay haaretz v'nashim hanochriyos" -c-resulting in segregation -i-resolution of all problems = leave the relig. -ii-Anan used cherem to disallow deviance from his own rules G-Later Karaite Practices -1-leniencies towards Shabbos -a-all things permitted on it that -2-women could perform bris -a-bris could be done with scalpel, not scissors anymore -3-children -a-had to perform all mitzvos from beg. Of speech H-Effectiveness of Karaites -1-in Spain only in Toledo, Telovaro -a-Ra'avad, historian, staunch enemy -b-later in Castille only -c-by 1179CE there were very few (?) I-R' Natronai b. Chilai Gaon -1-First to oppose Karaites -2-100 years after Anan's death -3-Quirqisani-prominent speaker of Karaites -a-said R' Hai Gaon wrote trans. Document of all Karaite writings, found sources for all of them in Rabbanim -b-later said never saw it, only heard of it J-Polemic Literature bet. Karaites & Rabbanim -1-challenged Rabbanim to think and set forth opinions -2-acceptance of Talmud Bavli helped by these disputes -3-movement in Bavel to make Bavli universal work of law K-Rejection of Anan -1-possible mamzerus in mishpacha -2-had questionable opinions (most likely) L-Book personal Talmud of own opinions -1-approach similar to RG, but claimed that only his practices constituted halacha -2-had absolute authority -3-wanted to transform own laws into universal law -4-had midrashay aggada Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 13 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman -5-justified strictures as being part of Avaylay Tziyon 2/14/00 Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm M-Jerusalem as center of K activity N-Failure of K's in 10th cent. -1-K's that didn't live in Y"m called those that did shoshanim -2-purpose of life Avalay Tziyon -1-owed to austere, hopeless lifestyle -2-chumras didn't inspire new members -3-ppl. attracted to yeshivos of Baval and E"Y III-Other Jewish Leaders A-Jewish Leader at time of Karaite failure: Chasdai Ibn Shaprut -1-full name: Abu Yusuf Chasdai Ibn Shaprut -2-in Moslem countries, was court physician -a-had polit. Influence in Moslem -b-from 9___-____ -3-well versed in lang., successful diplomat on behalf of Spain -a-won friendships from various emperors -i-also cured them of illnesses -b-he and family friendly with leaders -4-most famous for letter to Khazars -a-see R' Yehuda HaLayvi's Kuzari -i-kingdom wanted to convert, so king invited various leaders -ii-converted to J -b-in contact w/them after conversion -i-served as commerce advisor -c-praised milit. Victories -d-argument if actually sent it -i-expressed own ideas in own styles -ii-name in acrostic form at beginning of each line -5-influence on J culture -a-$ support to yeshivos -b-invited scholars to come to Spain, lead yeshivos there -c-given title of Resh Kallah b/c helped Bavli yeshivos -6-wealthy, powerful -a-become despotic dictator -7-conflict Menachem Ibn Saruk -a-got angry at MIS, withdrew support & punished him -b-MIS's poetry evidence of this -i-said got beaten up on Shabbos by thugs B-Shmuel HaNaggid (Ibn Nagrella) (933-) -1-lived through 1056 -a-aristocrat -b-talmud chachom, posek halacha -c-Hebrew poet of Spain -d-born in Cordova, engaged in overseas commerce -2-w/conflicts of 1013, fled to Malaga -3-Shmuel appointed to Granada's gov't -a-Ra'avad-he wrote letters to Vizier for mistress of house -i-vizier held him in high esteem -4-1020, charges brought against him -a-removed from post -b-father in law, nephew executed in 1020 -5-Katif of Vizier Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 14 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm -a-katif = scribe -6-died around 1056 -a-actions representative of J aristocrats -7-achieved a lot b/c -a-Kalifs = Ovaya's -i-strong, powerful, but stepped down in 11th cent. -b-warring factions -i-Ibn Shaprut able to negotiate bet. factions, which allowed SHN to rise -c-successful trade & commerce -d-diplomat, cultured -8-brilliant poet -a-great, Arabic style, caligraphy -9-knew atronomy -10-perushim on gem. -a-Shu"T -b-contact w/R' Hai Gaon -c-wanted to make sefer that was compendium of all halacha -i-not able to do so -11-military commander -a-poetry reflects battles -12-social & educational matters important -a-held educators to high, honest standards -13-harsh in rulings, later mellowed -14-enemies of Spain and J's own enemies -a-recog. Dangerous position of being involved in gov't & J at same time -b-always worried abt. conflict of interests -15-1056, son & community of Granada slaughtered on same day -a-showed connected to both J and Spain Jews in Xian Rome I. 312CE -Rome adopted Xianity A-pictured as cross wedding sword -1-Xians fought w/Rome to get them to recog. Them as legit relig. like J -a-religio ligita = legitimate religion -b-never gained that power -2-in 312, Xianity became official relig. of Rome -3-other classes of Rome accepted superficial Xianity -a-provided them w/ #'s B-Xian vs. Jews -1-already hated J from pagan days -2-Hadrianic and other wars diminished J's statue -3-J rejected, until 2nd coming of Yeshu, and then only maybe accepted -a-even if saved, cannot be redeemed now -4-single J incidents attributes to all J -5-Eusebius-distinction bet. Hebrews and Jews -a-Hebrews-neither J nor gentiles; had Xian values -b-Jews-followed Moshe, who created Jewry, w/laws that never had meaning for gentile -6-Torah had meaning only through Yeshu -a-said neviyim prophesied abt. Yeshu & New Torah--Torah Chaddasha -b-Maharal-will poskin like Shammai, certain changes in Halacha C-BHMK dest. & Impact on Jews -1-caused loss of esteem amongst goyim -2-Yavneh-interal & external threats -a-internal threats-Essenes, Kehuna Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 15 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm -b-external threats-other religs. -c-J sought to unify itself -i-exclusion of outside probs. -ii-inclusion of all inside probs. -d-Kehuna -a-pushed for re-est. of BHMK -b-RYbZ, RShbG made Yavneh center of relig. for B"D, p'skay halacha -3-R"H 31b -a-R' Yochanan-Kohanim should not duchan w/shoes on -i-Y? zecher lamikdash , to equate it to sanctity & k'dusha of Y'm -4-standardized t'filla -a-Rabban Gamliel-put 18 Brochos into davenning -5-halacha consolidated -a-RybZ, Rabban Gamliel, R' Akiva, R' Yehuda HaNassi parts of mishnah process -b-helped BN"Y sustain itself, esp. in galus D-J's in Rome -1-at first, didn't suffer violence, but were lower class -a-segregated, so as not to contaminate X -2-Emp. Constantine-loyalty to state = loyalty to X -a-How can J be tolerated if not loyal to X--must not be loyal to state? -3-Theodosian Code 415CE-issued under Emp. Theodosius II, who collected Roman laws from Constantine through his time (400's CE) -a-big changes in laws over one century: -4-Church Council of Elvira, 304 CE (b4 X accepted in Rome): 4 Laws -a-no intermarriage w/heretics or w/Jews -i-referred to X women and other relig. men -ii-punishment-woman's parents excommunicated for 5 years -iii-no J punished (indic. No power over J, only Xian) -b-Xian farmers forbidden from having crops blessed by J -i-Xians wanted crops to be blessed by J b/c had high regard for J, felt J close to G-d -ii-punishment-eviction from church -iii-had high regard for J's b/c church forbid them from going to J -c-social relations bet. J & X were extremely cordial -i-priests invited & accepted to eat w/Jews -ii-priests forbidden to eat with J -iii-punishment-priest excluded from communion until contamination passed -d-adultery w/ J or pagan women -i-punishment-eviction from church -5-Theodosian Code -a-intermarriage bet. J & X forbidden -i-penalty-death for both parties -b-apostasy-forbidden for X to become J -i-penalty-evicted from church -c-X leaders not wanted X to be servants to J -i-Emp. Forbid J to own X slaves often (ppl. never listened to them) -ii-punishment-death -d-J sent taxes to BHMK & later Nassi -i-afraid these $$ sent to Persia -ii-Theo ruled $ must be sent to X charities -iii-cut off from E"Y -6-J's escaped these rulings by converting -a-Theo ruled that cannot convert unless paid debts to church -b-J also wanted to prevent conversions -c-418 CE-death penalties ensued for converting w/o paying debts -7-Roman legislation Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 16 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman -a-anti-Semitism incorporated into state law -b-terminology for J: dismal, sachraligious Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm E-387 CE-Major Turning Point: Bishop of Antioch, John Chrysostom -1-issued 8 sermons totaling 100 pages -a-preached against J -b-known as Homilies Against the Jews -c-unlike Vacivious, ignorant of J -d-J posed no threat to X -e-wanted to inspire fear & hatred -2-set important precedent -a-X could write anything vs. J simply b/c were J -3-events of centuries ago- T'hillim 37: -a-sacrificed children -4-considered synagogues evil places -a-of X women who attended synagogue: -i-rej. X who attended shul b/c Bible there -ii-responded that Ark in Temple of Dagan -b-called J "demons who spout scriptures" -5-Easter held of Pesach -a-99% did celebrate it then -b-b/c killed Yeshu, X should say they hate us -6-anti-Semitism today: Cardinal Hay-Europe & Jews -a-writes abt. JChrysostom that was happy person, touched by divine -7-J & X of Antioch -a-knew one another, so not too successful -b-had much influence on later generations, who didn't know J -8-wanted to inspire fear & hatred, so accused of 5 things -a-deception-b-thievery-c-huxter-selling things for any price he can get -d-lustful-e-greedy-9-accused synagogue of 4 things -a-cavern of brigands -b-repair (lair) of wild beasts -c-place of shame & ridicule -d-domicile of devil -10-odorous J -a-b/c assassination of Yeshu -b-no indulgence, not pardon, forever damned -c-used metaphors, line of Tanach, to hurt J From Deiner in lieu of 2/16/00: 2/21/00 I. Takanos Rabbaynu Gershom, M'Or HaGola (10th-11th cent) A-Involved in textual correction of Gemara -1-travelled Europe finding manuscripts -a-examined and determined correct texts -2-Rashi and others disagreed with RGersh's girsas -a-many others had diff. girsaos -3-gathered talmidim, studied texts by rote memory until knew his correct text by heart -4-also gave him payrushim of words to explain text -a-sent talmidim out to communities, poskined like Rebbe, RGersh Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 17 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman B-Definition of Takana Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm -1-takana = din made by great individual -a-also requires community to go along with it -b-often instituted conference of gedolay Yisrael, rabbanim, to affirm takana -i-rabbanim then convinced own communities to follow ruling -2-put into cherem if violate -a-Ashkenaz upheld them, S'fardim did not C-Forbidding marrying more than one wife -1-debate whether accomplished anything -a-excepting S'fardim, lacked plural marriages -b-in Tanach, also in Gem happened occasionally -2-plural marriages not common problem in E"Y -a-Gem. R' Ami-cant add 2nd wife unless other wives agree -i-disputed, but shows tendency for monogamy -b-even Karaites said that could never marry 2nd wife from "achosah" -i-"achosah" = neighbor -3-lack actual text of takana -a-Rashi = first to mention it -4-later takana of other ruling making exceptions to takana -a-problem: have 3 versions of list of exceptions -5-takana versions: can only be matir it if have heter from... -a-100 men from 3 separate countries -b-100 men from 3 communities from 3 separate countries -i-accepted my many gedolim--said refers to the 3 major communities in Germ. -ShU"M--Spire, Worms, Mayence -ii-Y these? For these communities that R'Gersh made it for -c-100 men from 3 countries from 3 communities -6-problems with accepting 2nd version -a-if need approval of community, Y require 100 men? -b-not likely that takana for 3 specific communities would spread to all communities -c-Spire began 1080CE--couldn't have been included b/c 50 years after his death -7-R' Meir M'Padua (Acharon) said that R' Shimshon b. Avraham of Sans (Rash M'Shantz) made takana -a-Rashba-R' Shlomo b. Aderes-said takana lapsed in 5000 (1240 CE) -b-RMP said that Rash M'Shantz made it diff., renewed it -c-Rashba needs verification-not found in any of his 6,000 t'shuvos, chiddushim -d-R' Yosef of Kolon (Maharik)-1500's-T'shuva 101 quotes Rashba as saying this -i-but authority of Rashba indefinite, not sure how Rashba knew this -e-even if Rashba correct, no German or French Rishonim discuss lapse of takana or time limit to it -8-no evidence that original takana had limitations -a-later gatherings could ammend it -9-suspension of takana: case of wife leaving husband for baptism -a-nobody held that husband obligated to her -b-usually happened b/c wife had affair w/knights or noblemen -c-investigated what happened w/wife, allowed him to remarry after found that willingly converted to Xianity -d-had to show not forced baptism -10-case of Austria-demand that husband execute a get when wife ran away w/noble -a-accepted for wife for shaliach B"D -b-difficult case b/c B"D can only appoint Shaliach Holacha, not M'Kabel -c-able to b/c Zakin l'adam shelo b'fanav--b/c act of z'nus, and this freed her from it -11-problem of yibum when yavam already married -a-no problem in France b/c only Chalitza done -b-Germ-forbid yibbum, and here perform chalitza--compelled yavam to do chalitza in this case Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 18 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm -c-R' Ya'akov Molin-1500's-wrote on minhagim-allowed yibum in these cases -i-cases not nec. accepted although in t'shvos -12-Rashba-280-S'fardim forced Ashkenaz ppl. to hold like takana when lived amongst them -a-however, allowed a man married to a wife for 10 years & childless to marry 2nd wife -b-Ravya-disagreed w/allowance -c-Or Zarua-chided BNY to hold to D'rabbanan's as well as they did the takana D-R'Gersh not always accepted easily, w/o approval of other gedolim -1-t'shuva R' Yitzchak M'Vina--sh'ayla abt. bris on R"H -a-R' Gersh's opinion not accepted until 4 other gedolim agreed w/him E-Takkana-Compulsory Divorce -1-generally husband gives divorce -a-B"D could force husband to divorce her if refuses -b-if he wanted to divorce, B"D couldn't stop him -c-Chazal assumed that payment of k'suba normally prevented divorce -i-really only protected poor -ii-Josephus-avg. worker made 8 zuz yearly; k'suba cost 200 zuz! -d-sometimes, woman's family added Tosefes over 200 zuz to prevent wealthier husbands from divorcing 2/23/00 -2-if woman wants divorce, woman comes and B"D researches, determines she deserves divorce -a-husband could be forced -3-R'Gersh put issur on giving get w/o communities consent -a-can't throw get into chatzer of woman w/o consent of 3 communities -b-if husband did it anyway, he and witnesses put into nidduy (for 30 days) -4-later generations nullified get given w/o consent of communities -a-Gem. Kesubos allowed this -b-R'Gersh didn't take this power for self through takkanos -c-husband could not remarry -ii-husband didn't have to provide m'zonos -5-Gaonim also made similar takkana -a-husband could be forced to give get -b-contradicted Gemara--community had no power to stop husband giving a get -6-results -a-easier for wife to force husband to give get than husband to divorce wife -7-neither text of Divorce or Bigamy takkana available F-Takkana-Engagements (have text) -1-in monogamous society, not only involves social equality of the chassan & kallah, but also the families -2-families considered on same social status level -a-through WWI, social status more important than other factors -b-wealth, son/daughter of talmid chacham -c-shaloch manos-lower family HAD to send higher family, who can then choose respond -3-actual takkana: shidduchim-difficult to break -a-each party gave $ to trustees, forfeit to losing party if broke agreement -b-also took on Cherem if broke it -c-if break engagement, ppl. hurt b/c thought to have left b/c other was lower social class -4-Charamim didn't work -a-communities used to annul Charamim -5-Maharam M'Rotenbrg (Modechai Niddah p. 788)-case -a-chassan became apostate after engagement -b-ruled that kallah could re-engage to another man -c-however, if chassan returned to Judaism, and if kallah not engaged yet, she'd have to take him back -d-this applied unless 30 ppl. were matir it after investigation -6-weak proof of engagement ceremonies: Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 19 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman -a-German Yiddish expression for engagement: "K'nas Laygan" -b-to put a fine on the parties Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm G-Takkana-Privacy of Mail -1-since no governmental post office was by foot -a-letter-carriers were curious -b-charem (inc. taking shavua, like all charamim) put on reading letters -2-assur to read letter w/o author's knowledge or permission H-Takkana (?)-Amending Text of Gemara -1-Source: R"T in intro to Sefer HaYashar -a-reports that R'Gersh "lot" (cursed) those who changed text of Talmud -2-R'Gersh very meticulous in researching proper texts of Gem -a-even R"T does not say made actual takkana -3-Tosefos engaged in amending texts -a-some even put own girsa into Gem text -b-possible that these Gedolim violated Takkana?!!? -i-difficult to assert I-Takkana-Rights of Transients through Communities w/Cherem of D"B -1-person passes through town w/cherem -a-is brought to court and is tried -b-cherem applied to passer-by -c-could go to B"D and present own case -d-"witnesses only for deceivers" -2-passerbys have rights of community he's in -3-visiting defendant only had to be present for case -a-could then leave -b-witnesses had to run after him to give him p'sak din J-Takkana-Bringing Recalcitrant Defendant to B"D -1-if claimant take Jew to B"D, and he refuses to appear, claimant has ability to stop t'fillos and announce to public that wants B"D to hear his case -a-which davenning can claimant stop? -b-how many k'hillos can he stop? -2-cannot stop during Yotzer HaM'oros, Mincha, Krias HaTorah until stops Ma'ariv or Ashray/Uva L'Tziyon 3 times -a-can do this as many times as wants until B"D hears his case -b-cannot stop any other shul aside from defendant's shul 3 consecutive times -i-can then go to other shul -3-full stopping of t'filla -a-prevent starting Ma'ariv -b-can interrupt t'filla until k'hilla grants a din Torah -c-later became common to stop t'filla during K'rias HaTorah K-Regulations for Establishing New Communities -1-had to make sure their actions not conflicting with other communities 3/1/00 Europe: Germany & France A-Later, by 8th cent, all over Europe B-Machir I. Jews Settled in Europe by 4th cent. -1-outstanding talmid chachom -2-scholarly decendents called `nisiyim' -a-some headed school of Narbonne, Fr. C-Yehuda b. Meir HaKohen Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 20 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman -1-called Leontine (from Latin term for lion) -2-refered to in Sefer HaYashar of R"T -a-called him a gaon -3-teacher of Rabbanu Gershom Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm D-General Non-Jewish Learning (by 8th-10th cent.) -1-learning limited to clergy, became scholars -2-clergy became statesman -a-recognized that Jews nec. for economic stability -b-Jews served as middle class -3-allowed Jes to serve as domestic traders & merchants -4-Spire, on Rhine River -a-feudal town, w/bishop as direct ruler -b-Germ emp. Ruled nominally E-Bishop Rudiger-ambitious leader of Spire (1073-1090) -1-wanted to enlarge rule -2-riot vs. Jews broke out in Mayence during his rule -a-many angry -3-BishRud realized this was opportunity to invite Jews to Spire -4-Invitation had 3 parts: -a-Jews could live w/relig. freedom from gov't, clergy -b-J had right to serve as merchants -i-important, b/c usually goyim got angry when J merchants prospered -c-told Jews that dignity of spire would increase 1000-fold w/them there -5-received decree of Henry IV, emp. Germ. -a-allowed J to live, work there, under protection -b-gave J right of mobility, to travel in & out of Spire w/o problems -c-Tos.(B"K )& Ran (Nedarim 28 in Mesores HaShas) -gov't had formerly said that J had to take shavua abt. not leaving area -i-said J would add word "hayom" silently F-Culture -1-no ties bet. J & Xian studies -a-Xian scholars all clergy -b-studied only Xian stuff -2-J spoke vernacular Fr., German -a-not noble lang. -3-studied Hebrew studies -a-Tanach } -b-Gemara } studied heavily by Germ, Fr -c-Ivrit } -d-Poetry -studied by Spanish -4-Many J studied, not limited to J rabbis -5-R' Yehuda HaKohen, R' Eliezer of Worms (author of Kol Bo) wrote: -a-in Kol Bo: young men (ketanim) should listen to gedolim, b/c they increased more than ignorant ppl. G-Increase in Learning: -1-Kolonimous Family-1sy family of scholars -a-came of own volition -2-son, R' Yehoshua Kolonimous, -a-wrote Ashkenaz piyutim, minhagim of Sprie, Mayence -3-sources for coming to Worms -a-R' Eliezer of Worms-wrote _______ -b-R' Shlomo b. Luria (MaHarShal)-4-have 60 t'shuvus -a-his advice sought by many ppl. -b-wrote abt. social & economic inyanim Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 21 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman H-R' Yehuda b. Meir HaKohen (Leontine) Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm -1-teacher of R'Gersh, who said taught him `rov talmudi' -a-discussion in Gem. Bavli Abt. Rebbe Muvhak-rov chochmaso =most of quantitative learning -b-Gem. Yerush says abt. teaching derech halimud -2-worked in Mayence after Kolonimus -3-p'sak: t'shuvos Ma'asay HaGeonim-said permissible to eulogize Talmid Chocham on Chanukah -a-already says this in Mo'ed Kattan -b-was controvercial at the time -4- p'sak: found in Or Zarua: in name of Leontine-a-sh'mitas kesafim -5- p'sak: Sha'ary Dura-in name of RYbM Ka"tz (Kohen Tzeddek) -a-wanted to forbid even b'di eved: cooking w/goyish kugel -6-have only 1 intact Shu"t -a-detailed analysis of aspects of community law, majority rule of corporate bodies -b-not exactly shutafos -c-discusses modern democratic rule there J-R' Shimon b. Yitzchak -1-from Lamanes -2-from chevra inc. R' Eliezer K-Machir b. Yehuda, bro. of R'Gersh -1-wrote 2 books: -a-Sefer Machiri -b-lost 2nd book: Sefer Alph Bais shel Machir -i-Rashi mentions it in Bereayshis 43:11, Eruvin 22a s.v. `Kormi' -ii-hypothesis-could have been dictionary L-Misc. -1-R' Ya'akov b. Yashar -2-R' Yosef b. Shmuel ???? Bon Fer -a-born in Larbonne -b-Rav in Limoge -c-wrote many t'shuvos -d-lost commentary -e-fixed texts -f-wrote Hilchos G'dolos -g-paytan -i-62 of his piyutim important in -ii-Elokay HaRuchos on Shabbos HaGadol -3-R' Simcha b. Yitzchak Abun -a-in court of Fr. -b-persuades Henry to not exile J of Mayence -c-paytan-wrote Baruch HASHEM Yom Yom Parshanut I. 2 approaches: P'shat vs. Drash A-Menachem b. Chelbo-p'shat -1-Menachem b. Sarut, Dunash ibn. Labrat -2-wirtings lost -3-rationalist B-Moshe HaDarshan & Shimon Kara-drash -1-SK = brother of Mencham ibn Sarut -2-drush = allegorical interpretation, mishalim -3- Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 22 of 23 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Professor Landman C-Yosef b. Shimon Kara-pashtan -1-Ki L'Navi HaYom...indic. Shmuel was written after time of death -a-HaRo'eh-Shmuel still called Ro'eh-seer -b-P'sukim state that Navi used to be called ro'eh Spring 2000 Notes until Midterm The Crusades The Popes The Rishonim The Maimonidean Controversy Franco-German Jewry The Marranos Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesMidterm1.pdf Page 23 of 23 ...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course JEWISH HIS 1300 taught by Professor Lan during the Spring '08 term at Yeshiva.
- Spring '08
- The Bible