JHI1300LanNotesFinal1-1 - JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History...

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Unformatted text preview: JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Landman Spring 2000 Notes from Midterm until Final by Daniyel Hoffman N = Navi Nev = nevua 3/22/00 Rambam I. Rambam's History A-Beginning of Controversy -1-not a debate over Rambam himself -a-both attackers & defenders praised his learning & piety -b-all acknowledged him as outstanding scholar -2-attack on something written in Mishneh Torah & Moreh Nevuchim -a-most of defenders & attackers never read MN B-many issues disputed: -1-reason & philo vs. faith & tradition/mesorah/m'pi hash'mu'a -a-Rambam said that reason & philo should be applied to Torah, and all mitzvos based on reason -b-even the 12 chukim, which are G'zayras HaKasuv/HaMelech, gives reasons -2-what may be taught and not taught -a-allows teaching of philo, science -3-interp. anthropomorphism in Tanach -4-what constitutes belief in Tichiyas HaMaysim -a-Payrush Lmishnayos -b-Perek Cheleck -c-Hil' Teshuva 8:8 -5-allegorical interp. of Tanach -a-m'shalim-removing inherent importance -b-held that things that are illogical = allegorical (i.e. Atudim atudim by Ya'akov and sheep) -6-legitimacy of Yad's format -a-lacks sources -7-Is one bound to follow est. hierarchy of communal p'skay halacha or can one follow one's own intellect? -a-Rambam held that intellect most important--rej. Geonim -b-e.g. Chanuka lighting 2 aspects of Shabbos: Tzura HaMelacha Chiddush R' Yehuda-holds by act alone-Chayav R' Shimon-holds by intent-Patur 3/22/00 C-Rambam himself -1-Jewish rationalism strong b/c of him -a-his philo very clear -b-accomplished many things, through which ppl. accepted him as authoritative -2-birth -a-born 14 Nissan, Shabbos 1135 CE on 1pm in Cordova, Spain Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesFinal1.pdf Page 1 of 17 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Landman Spring 2000 Notes from Midterm until Final by Daniyel Hoffman -b-father, Maimon, = a gadol -3-b4 age 13, home city fell to Almohades (Arabs) -a-motto was "The Koran or the Sword" -b-gave ppl. 3 choices: death, Koran, or exile -4-family moved to Fez, North Africa (later fell to Moslems too) -a-some ppl. believe he ostensibly converted and wore Turban, insignia of conversion -5-1165 left for E"Y -a-Crusades then in E"Y -b-after a month of stormy passage on ship, arrived in Acco -c-went to Y"m, Chevron, but had to move to Cairo -6-Cairo -a-brother = jeweler -b-father died -c-brother died in ship 1170, Rambam gave -b-become doctor for al Fadhil, grand vizier of sultan -e-become pro-bono physician for Jewish community -7-died -a-December 1204 II-Writings in General: A-earliest ones from his youth B-Milos HaHegiyon-Vocabulary of Logic -1-abt. logical theory, physical and metaphysical phenomenon -2-abt. J philo C-Ma'amar Ha-Ibur -1-abt. Chodesh, Ibur Shana -2-nec. for understanding J philo D-Payrush HaMishnayos -1-began at age 23 -2-very few meforshim to mishna -a-wrote 1st complete payrush on Mishnayos -b-considered mishna = self-sufficient unit, separate from Gemara -c-can learn mishnayos alone -d-they overlap at times -e-need to understand mishna alone -3-digresses to discuss theology & philo -a-renders medrashim reasonable, rational -4-rational enterprise of Torah SheBa'al Peh -5-addresses question: how can there be diversity of opinion in a system that claims to ste mfrom Har Sinai? -a-2 components in B'Chsav, Min Hatorah Halachos -b-halacha l'mosheh m'sinai-absolute & never subject to dispute -i-mach' can occur if something is considered L'Moshe MiSinai -ii-however, once its L'Moshe, no dispute abt. it -c-interpretations -i-using 13 Middos of R' Yishmael, et. al. -ii-after interpretations accepted by Rabbim, followed -iii-can have machlokes -6-Olam HaBa -a-rej. Materialistic interp. of O"HB -b-ID's OHB as immortality of soul -c-defines J as following 13 Ikarim (Ani Ma'amins) -d-3 divisions -i-G-d, unity, prohibition of A"Z -ii-divine origin of Torah, not changing Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesFinal1.pdf Page 2 of 17 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Landman Spring 2000 Notes from Midterm until Final by Daniyel Hoffman -iii-s'char v'onesh, omniscience, Mashiach, Tichiyas HaMaysim -e-every J needs to believe these things 3/27/00 E-Sh'moneh P'rakim-part of Payrush L'Mishnayos -1-abt. Sh'vil HaZahav, Golden Mean -a-virtues are in middle bet. 2 extremes -i-i.e. stingy vs. extravagant: mean = generosity in moderation -ii-cowardice vs. recklessness: mean = courage -2-defines virtues based on psychological make up of each individual -a-each person has unique Mean -i-if a person = reckless, must reverse self entirely to be cowardly, and eventually will work out and regain balance in middle -3-Last Perek: Absolute Belief in Free Will -a-rejects all views that undermine Free Will -b-Astrology = A"Z -c-rej. Divine Predestination -d-man chooses how to act, G-d chooses not to interfere F-Shu"T: Iggeres HaSh'mad/Kiddush HASHEM -1-written bet. 1161-2 -2-deals w/forced conversions -3-Rambams's reaction to P'sak given in Yemen, who was totally insensitive to plight of Jews under Almohed Muslim rule -a-Yemenites became `Marranos' by being overtly Muslim & covertly Jewish -b-Yemeni rav put them in chayrem, made them feel worse -4-brought aggados to prove his point, that ok to overtly convert to Islam -a-knowingly wrote this in contradiction of other p'sak -b-R' Eliezer, who was captured -i-apparently believed to idol -ii-said Ne'eman Alay HaDayan -iii-meant Judge, HASHEM, knew he didn't bow to idol -iv-judge thought R' Eliezer meant him, and dismissed the case against him -c-tried to allow Yemeni's to feel Jewish so would eventually return fully after harsh Muslim rule passed G-Shu"T: Iggeres Teyman -1-in response to Sh'ayla from Jews there -a-persecuted from 1165 onwards -b-mishumad preached to them to convert -2-sections -a-writes abt. history of persecution of Jews -b-anomosity towards Jews by Muslims & Xians -c-absolute unity between Tanach & TSBP -3-explains how J should cope with persecutions -a-some J are turned away -b-supplies comfort to them -c-punishment of J for sins IS NOT REJECTION by HKBH -i-that was Xian & Muslim thought J-Sefer HaMitzvos -1-613 mitzvos; many Rishonim disagree as to which mitzvos comprise 613 -2-has 14 guiding principles in choosing mitzvos -a-both provocative & insightful -3-rule: all mitzvos gotten through 13 Middos (R' Yishmael) are not inc. in 613 -a-have D'oraisa level, but not actual mitvos Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesFinal1.pdf Page 3 of 17 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Landman Spring 2000 Notes from Midterm until Final by Daniyel Hoffman -4-9th principle: classifications -a-must acknowledge unity of G-d -b-must be actions to attest to this (karbonos) -c-need mitzvos between people-V'ahavta -d-need t'filla -5-rules = all inclusive, repudiation of narrow legalism as description of Judaism -a-used 14 principles, also had 14 sections of Mishna Torah -b-wrote principles to guide Yad HaChazaka, to ensure order & comprehensiveness, style -6-originality of Sefer HaMitzvos -a-used objective way to select mitzvos -7-sometimes didn't hold to own style from Sefer HaMitzvos in Mishna Torah H-Mishna Torah (1178) -1-5 factors used therein: -a-language-Mishnaic Hebrew -i-ppl. learned mishnayos already, so this would make it easy to learn -ii-uses Gemara, translates it into Hebrew, which tells reader how he understood p'shat Gem -b-classification-uses own system, not Mishna's -i-pedagogical-ii-logical-starts w/general categories & principles of topic, defines terms -c-most concise form-eliminates debate & conflicting cases -i-even when undocumented, ends up w/halacha -ii-says its not a payrush, but does act like it -d-scope & historical surveys (i.e. Hil' Chanukah) -i-no matter where applicable, need to study history -ii-includes all mitzvos, even T'luyos B'Aretz -e-merging halacha w/philo-wanted to create unity bet. practice & concept, practical and theoretical -i-gave rational reasons for every mitzvah, even 12 chukim -ii-nothing in Torah = unreasonable III-Moreh Nevuchim (1190) A-General -1-orig. in Arabic, later trans. By Yehuda Ibn Tibin -2-not for everybody--said its for person w/talent for understanding philo -3-covers fundamental concepts of metaphysics & ethics -a-G-d, universe, man, creation -4-fully aware of dangers & shortcomings of philo -a-philo will always be suspect by the masses b/c separatist -5-warns that guide attempts to communicates to diff. readers on diff. levels -a-problem: who's his audience? -6-laws of Torah -a-should be known & practiced through revelation -b-then need to apply reason to them -c-need to accept tradition and then apply reason 3/29/00 B-elimination of doubts of the Perplexed -1-Philo did this by examining Biblical phrases as metaphors & allegories -2-not all interpretations literal--some are not like mashmaus at all -a-e.g. Ya'akov & sheep & sticks -b-said these were in dreams -3-uses Aristotelian Homonyms-words w/2 meanings -a-e.g. `dog' is a type of mammal and a constellation (Dog Star); have nothing in common aside from name Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesFinal1.pdf Page 4 of 17 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Landman Spring 2000 Notes from Midterm until Final by Daniyel Hoffman -b-e.g. knowledge of man, knowledge of G-d; have nothing in common except the word -c-things have qualitative differences (references) even when are quantitatively the same (title) -4-conclusion: man cannot give positive attributes to G-d, only can ascribe negative qualities -i-e.g. can't say that G-d is has knowledge, b/c we don't know what Divine Knowledge is; can only say that He is does not lack knowledge E-opposed to anything that would indicate that G-d is not incorporeal (has a body) -1-all anthropomorphisms are interpretive as homonyms -2-1st part of Moreh devoted to defining terms in Tanach that are homonyms -3-homonyms = prerequisite to his own philo F-Theology/Metaphysics -1-says it's a Mitzvah to discuss -2-Sh'mos 32--Harayni Nah Es Kivodecha.... -a-if want to find Favor in HASHEM's eyes, need to try to learn abt. Him -3-sciences have to be studied -4-must know limitations of reason -a-Chagiga Perek 2-Kol HaMistakel B'Arba D'varim, Raui Lo K'ilu Lo Nivrah: Mah L'Ma'ala, Mah L'Matta, Mah L'fim, uMah L'Achor -b-doesn't mean Chazal said not to use reason; means not abusing reason, and rejecting truth that Reason has limitation -5-Torah given in Metaphor for that reason--so all could understand it -6-beginners should be given the right views, even if can't prove them -a-if capable of learning proofs later, should G-Aristotelian Principles -1-based on Aristotle's Principle of Motion -2-motion needs a mover; matter cannot move itself -3-but this mover needs a mover; no prime-mover -4-prime mover-something that moves other things but is not moved itself H-Moreh Nevuchim: proofs of G-d's existence acc. to Rambam: 4 possibilities of Prime Mover -1-Body that is External to World -a-not possible -b-b/c if it is a body, it too must be moved -2-Internal Power divisible by divisions of world, which moves infinitely -a-within world w/same qualities and properties as the world -b-but can move the world -c-impossible b/c world is finite, and something w/in it cannot move infinitely -3-Internal Indivisible Power -a-impossible b/c soul that moves its body is itself in motion but its motion is an accident of the body -b-accident = not by itself important w/o body -c-body needs soul to move, soul needs body to move -4-Separate Incorporeal Substance -a-only possible G-d -b-has no comparison to world -c-can move other things but can move itself; not subject to any other power I-3 Views of the Origin of World -1-ex nihilo-Yesh MayAyin-time didn't exist b4 world & created time w/world -a-time is a measure of motion & motion cannot be with out moving things -2-Platonic view-world is subject to creation & decay -a-therefore it must have been created in time -b-but G-d didn't create it ex nihilo -c-G-d cannot create impossibilities Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesFinal1.pdf Page 5 of 17 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Landman Spring 2000 Notes from Midterm until Final by Daniyel Hoffman -d-G-d uses eternal matter that is co-eternal with Him -e-matter created with G-d -3-Aristotle's Basic Premise-time & motion are external -a-matter doesn't decay but takes on new forms -b-matter has taken on new forms 4/3/00 -4-Aristotle's 1st Proof for an Eternal World -a-motion is not subject beginning or end (exception = friction) -b-everything that's created after a state of non-existence requires motion to move it from non-existence to existence -c-hence motion has to precede the world and is eternal -5-Aristotle's 2nd Proof for an Eternal World -a-if the world was brought into existence by G-d, then G-d was a potential-creator before it was created -b-after G-d created, he became a actual-creator-in-reality -c-impossible for there to be a change in G-d, which is why the world is eternal and coexists with G-d -6-Aristotle's 3rd Proof for an Eternal World -a-a force acts at a particular time, and does not act at another time -i-b/c good reason to act at one time and not a good reason to act another time -ii-there are forces prevent it from acting at another time -iii-there are forces that encourage it to act now -b-but with G-d, there are no forces that can act upon Him, so there is no impetus to act at any specific point in time -c-since G-d is eternally acting, then the world has always existed -7-Ramabam's Response to Aristotle -a-basic flaw in Aristotle: assumes that the world as a whole was created and appeared as it does now -i-then could prove like Aristotle -b-however, when G-d created world, none of these laws existed -i-created essential matter from nothing -ii-then made it the basis of all generation and destruction -iii-from essential matter, G-d shaped world -iv-formation of shapes (Yitzira) determines physical laws, not creation (B'riya) of matter itself -c-Aristotle's Potential/Actual requiring a force is not true within material that may be active, whether or not results of actions are visible -i-action = homonym -ii-action with regards to the world requires force -iii-action with regards to G-d does not require force -d-Aristotle's Time Bound Force Theory, force being subject to outside forces -i-a human builds or does not build for many reasons -ii-when reasons for not building leave, he builds -iii-if G-d does not act always, the nature of Ratzon HASHEM acts or does not act depending on the Will -iv-Will, Knowledge, Power of G-d is the same thing as His Essence -e-concludes that Creation is possible -f-Theory of Creation vs. Eternity of the World -i-difference = impersonal & mechanical law, vs. an intelligent personality acting with Will -ii-world has a purpose and design in addition to laws -iii-laws have no applicability to Upper Spheres -g-Aristotle can't find a good reason that heavens move from east to west -i-laws don't nec. find reasons for specific phenomenon -ii-Aristotle himself admits he doesn't understand East-West phenomenon -iii-Rambam explains G-d chose it to be this way Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesFinal1.pdf Page 6 of 17 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Landman 4/5/00 Spring 2000 Notes from Midterm until Final by Daniyel Hoffman -h-vs. Aristotle's Mechanical Theory -i-does away with t'filla, t'shuva, Free Will, nevua, Bechirat BN"Y -ii-he therefore chose Creation from logical probabilities -iii-reason 1-less logical reasonable problems w/Creation, so chose it -iv-reason 2-allows for Torah, and Torah tells us there was Creation -i-vs. Arist: Rambam said world does not co-exist w/G-d (not Dual Theory of Existence) -i-Arist. Says World necessarily exists w/G-d from eternal activity of G-d -says will & existence of G-d eternal -ii-Rambam-Did G-d fashion world according to His will or is He bound by its eternal laws? -G-d separate from World, so can choose to create or not create; used own Will to decide to create, not bound by its laws J-3 Opinions of Nevua -1-most people say-anyone can be chosen by G-d who inspires him with Divine Spirit -a-Nevua has no pre-requisites except that HKBH chooses Navi -2-philos-Nevua requires natural aptitude (creativity), hard word, study -a-Nevua automatically comes to such a person who does these things -b-work of individual causes Nevua by developing himself fully -3-Judaism-exactly same as philos but G-d can prevent prophecy is He doesn't want to give it -a-Nevua not automatic -b-end result: G-d's choice to give it to person who exerts himself K-Dreams & Nevua -1-dreams produce nev. visions -a-differ in degree but not in kind; both are degrees of creativity -2-nevua depends on perfection of: reason, mind, morals -3-Mareh-state of agitation during Navi's waking day (seer = Ro'eh) -a-Daniyel 10:8-lacked str. when saw vision -b-similar to Chalom b/c senses cease to function -c-experiences things as if was asleep L-11 Levels of nev. beyond mareh -1-lowest stage-Ruach HASHEM-desire for person to save a community or person -a-Dovid & Moshe had this at time of maturity -2-then Ruach HaKodesh-speaks words of praise/warning while fully conscious -a-Tehillim, Mishlay, Shir, Iyov, Divray HaYamim & all Kesuvim -b-Dovid, Shlomo, Daniyel, Bilam in this category -3-1st grade of real nev: sees picture in dream, and within dream, explanation given -i-most of Zecharya this types -4-N hears speech, but sees no speaker -i-Shmuel's career started this way -5-man speaks to N in a dream -6-angel speaks with N in a dream -i-most N this way -7-HKBH speaks to N in a dream -i-Yishayahu-says heard Kol HASHEM -8-awake, sees vision & sees pictures like Avraham saw as Bris Bein HaB'sarim -9-awake, hears word in vision -i-B'rayshis-Vayhi d'var HASHEM aylav -10-awake, man speaks to N in a vision -i-vision deeper than dream -11-angel speaks to N in a vision -i-Avraham at Akaydas Yitzchak -12-Moshe Rabbaynu -i-HKBH speaking to Moshe in vision -ii-too much for a vision Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesFinal1.pdf Page 7 of 17 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Landman Spring 2000 Notes from Midterm until Final by Daniyel Hoffman K-More on Nev -1-all details of actions, travels in visions did not actually happen -a-were part of vision -i-Hosha y'a marrying a Zonah -b-appears in dream or vision -2-Moshe was only one to give Torah to Am Yisrael -a-Ayn avi Rashay....gets death is adds or subtracts -b-Kol HaMosif Goraya--death -3-distinctions of Moshe & other nev -a-others all saw it in vision/dream, never when awake -b-others could not initiate nevua -c-Peh el Pehdirect conversation -d-others experienced physical trauma to Moshe -4-Avos D'Rabbi Nassan-Lo nitna Torah ele m'pi Moshe L-Free Will -1-foolish astrologers think man's destiny determined by stars at birth -a-wrong b/c of reason -b-wrong b/c of tradition -i-man controls actions, nobody else responsible for mitzvos & avayros -ii-if pre-destined-no point of putting forth personal effort -2-Paroh's Heart -a-curtailment of Paroh's free wiil b/c abused own free will to treat BNY poorly -b-b/c abused the privalige, forfeited it -3-Free Will & HKBH -a-HKBH's Knowledge = homonym -b-His knowledge so diff. from ours that we don't understand it -c-HKBH lacks attributes--they come from His Essence, and are all One Whole -d-just like can't understand knowledge, we can't understand Essence M-Evil -1-G-d does not create evil -a-allows for absence of good -b-just -2-3 types of evil -a-inflicted by nature -b-inflicted by man on his fellow -c-inflicted by man upon himself through over indulgence, bad habits N-Providence -1-Epicuris-apikorus from this Greek word-everything result of accident -a-refuted by Arist. -2-Arist-some governed by providence and others by accident -a-tied to theory of World -b-Heavens = permanent so have special providence -c-in general, providence deals with species--only Hashgacha K'lallis -i-Chazal-animals have Hashgacha K'lallis -d-natural destruction-tree falling & killing ppl. accidental--??? -3-Ashariya-Moslem Philo's -a-all is done via will of G-d, both in nature and with man -b-no such thing as the possible -c-something is either necessary and will happen, or not necessary and will not happen -d-reward & punishment = random -4-Mutazila-Moslem Philo's -a-man excercizes free will -b-good deeds are valid -c-G-d doesn't do evil, all `evil' that befalls man is for his own good -i-orig. from Iyov Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesFinal1.pdf Page 8 of 17 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Landman Spring 2000 Notes from Midterm until Final by Daniyel Hoffman -d-good done here rewarded in next world -e-leads to problem bet. knowledge of G-d and this world--? -5-Torah -a-reward & punishment done by -b-Yisurim Shel Ahava-ill fortunes not b/c of sins, but to increase s'char -c-no support for this in Tanach -6-Rambam -a-Hashgacha P'ratis enjoyed by man only -i-like Chazal-animals have Hashgacha K'lallis -b-when Chazal tell us that Tzar Ba'alay Chayyim not b/c huring animal but b/c hurts us and makes us cruel -i-like asking reason not given to animals -c-Hashgacha related to reason -i-amount based on own character & achievements -ii-navi, chassid, ignorant all have diff. levels of Hashgacha 4/10/00 IV. Mammonidean Controversy A-beginning-b4 1170's -1-Zecharya ben Berachel, Av B"D of Yeshivas Gaon Ya'akov in Baghdad, went to Aleppo representing Gaon Shmuel b. Eli (ruled 1164-1198) -a-went to collect funds for yeshiva -b-then went to Tzur and Damascus -c-atk'd Ramabm vehemently, esp. Payrush HaMishnayos, both in writing & orally -2-Rambam's Talmud Yosef. B. Yehuda ibn Achnin, lived in Aleppo reacted vs. ZbB B-ZbB's Points of Contention vs. Rambam -1-P"M-Sanhedrin 1:3 & Yad Hil' Sanhedrin 4:13 -a-Roshay Galuyos in Bavel are in place of kings -i-rule over BNY everywhere & judge them, whether or not BNY accept them -ii-b/c Lo Yasur Sharvit Mihuda--Chazal said R"G instead of Melech -b-not in terms of halacha, but in terms of rule, sided with RG -2-P"M Avos 4:5-Fixed for themselves monetary & communal demands, caused ppl. to think in foolishness -a-caused ppl. to think its appropriate to support scholars who learn -i-all this is wrong! -b-no makor for this in Shas--no Tanayim or Amorayim did this personally or for yeshivos -3-ZbB looked at collecting funds as contributing to legal fees -a-told J they must pay Gaonim for s'micha (& dayanus) & financial matters -4-local J opposition vs. GshbE & collections: 2 possible reasons -a-religious principle point of view--used Ramabm's points -b-were too stingy C-GshBE's Actions -1-P'saychya b. Ya'akov from Ratisbon, German Jewish traveler-1170's -a-tells that GshBE tried to exercise temporal rights of king -b-in entire area of Paras, Maddai, Bavel, have no judges not appointed by GShBE -2-Simcha Asaf-Hebrew U-GshBE claims right held by J only in E"Y-to give s'micha -a-gave it to ZbB, to remove power from RG -3-RG David b. Yehuda acquiesed to Gaonim -a-still needed goyish gov't to appoint leaders -b-J who lived under non-Arab rule & accepted RG would be accused of treason, dualloyalty -4-GShBE-said RG not allowed to be like melech--Shmuel HaNavi said that BNY don't need king Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesFinal1.pdf Page 9 of 17 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Landman Spring 2000 Notes from Midterm until Final by Daniyel Hoffman -a-J need Torah, not leadership by appointee of Arab gov't D-Results-GShbE lost -1-yeshiva lost $$ -b-wanted control over judicial system to gain rights to more $ given to gaon -i-could collect various fines & funds -c-J didn't accept this, wanted to control their own courts -2-Rambam sent letter to, talmud Yosef. B. Yehuda, in Shila addition of Iggros Rambam -a-Ibn Achnin wanted to teach Halachos (Rif) & Mishneh Torah -i-challenged GShbE -b-says that GShbE has no right to claim these powers -i-J caused this b/c anxious to hear things from yeshiva or to gain honorific title from it -ii-said RShbE not emes, wouldn't realize truth; corrupt -c-said ZbB--`pessi m'od'--foolish man who studied sources hard and thinks he's the greatest of his time having attained ultimate level -i-he's really nothing special -3-1195-RG Shmuel b. Assul died -a-GShBE tried to prevent new RG -b-Dovid b ____1195-1240 elected RG -c-Ramabm invited ppl. to Fustad (where he lived), and stood in silence in respect for the letter abt. the RG investiture -d-GshBE realized that can't simply fight RG, needed to fight Rambam E-GShBE vs. Rambam -1-realized fighting him not easy -a-b/c so famous and respected -b-Rambam had no position, nor sought one -i-b/c this, had great reputation -2-ergo tried to attack scholarly reputation of Rambam by attacking his books F-One Issue many gedolim had with Rambam -1-P'sak Hil' Shabbos 1:6-7, 8:2, 20:7 -a-1:6-7-rules like R' Yehuda vs. R' Shimon abt. Milacha She-ayna Tzaricha L'gufa -i-has ma'asa but lacks chiddush -b-GShBE had kabbala from Geonim & Rishonim that rule like Rava quoting R' Shimon, Patur -2-Rambam (Blau ed. T'shuva 464)-Rava held like R' Yose like R' Shimon; not halacha b/c Rambam holds like stam mishna -a-Shabbos 40b-Ravina, greatest basrai says that hold like R' Yehuda -b-R' Hai Gaon and others made mistake G-Points of contention-Case 1 -1-R' Avraham HaKohen of Damascus-submitted sh'ayla (Blau's edition 308)-about travel on broad rivers like the Nile, Chidekel, Euphrates & Shabbos -a-Rambam equates them to ocean travels, and says mutar to travel on them on Shabbos -b-deep & can't see from bank to bank; just like ocean -c-these t'chumim, over 10 amos, are d'rabbanan -2-T'shuva 309-GShBE writes `gentlemanly' t'shuva vs. the Rambam -a-quotes gem. Eruvin that t'chumim are MinHaTorah, and must forbid travel -b-response 310-concedes no point-says Lo Ta'aseh 321 & Gem. Shabbos say t'chumim are d'oraisa, but on rivers its d'rabbanan -3-shows that actual battle was abt. trying to diminish kavod for Rambam H-Points of contention-Case 2 -1-denied origin of Bris Milah = Avraham Avinu -a-actually Rambam Milah 1:1 says that mitzvah repeated after Matan Torah -i-quotes Gem. Chullin -2-said poskined this way against Moslems I-Points of contention-Case 3 Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesFinal1.pdf Page 10 of 17 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Landman Spring 2000 Notes from Midterm until Final by Daniyel Hoffman -1-either `erroneously or negligently' permitted women to stay at home during niddus -a-Rambam permits housewife obligations, except certain things -2-said based this vs. Moslems "[A wife] doesn't have to go around looking like a dog to avoid enticing her husband during Niddah" 4/12/00 J-Points of contention-Case 4 -1-said Rambam said a Shatz becomes Ba'al Keri, doesn't have to tovel -a-really Rambam said that a minhag to tovel -2-said Muslims makpid on t'vila, and Rambam wasn't b/c they were J-Points of contention-Case 5 -1-Rambam denied physical Tichiyas HaMaysim, and many gedolim argued -2-Rambam wrote Iggeres Tichiyas HaMaysim vs. this contention K-GShBE's Goals -1-wanted to get Muslims against Rambam as well, do degrade his status -2-wanted to regain own power V. Controversy After Death of Rambam A-deaths -1-GShBE-died 1199 -2-Rambam-died 1204 B-Daniyel b. Sa'adya of Damascus compiled Q's and sent them to R' Avraham b. HaRambam -1-t'shuvos written in sefer Birkas Avraham C-Impact of Mishneh Torah -1-R' Yehuda HaLevi's Kuzari waited 50 years for translation -a-Moreh Nevuchim translated b4 completed -2-Rav Mayer b.Tadris HaLayvi of Abulafi-Yad Remah & Rash M'shantz read philo parts of Mishneh Torah, upset -a-rej. The MN on that basis w/o reading it D-Minhagim -1-in theory Jewish practices were uniform -a-really not -2-minhagim differed -a-Ramabm didn't distinguish bet. minhagim -b-R' Moshe HaKohen, Ramach of Lunel, wrote of diff. minhagim in Hasagos -3-communities of Europe -a-S'fardic Spanish -b-Tzarfati French -c-Ashkenazic German -d-Provencal Provence (South Fr.) VI.-Remach vs. Rambam A-Matbaya SheTavu Chachomim -a-Rambam-careful to keep Chazal's wording of b'rachos -i-said those who change it are in error, must repeat b'racha again in correct form -2-Ramach's rejections -a-shows exceptions -i-Ramach-permissive concerning litergical wording of b'rachos -ii-quotes Gemara, which says if say b'racha in Aramaic form, is yotzay b'racha -iii-quotes Gem, if person changes -b-shows various minhagim that differed -c-shows previous sages that said could change Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesFinal1.pdf Page 11 of 17 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Landman Spring 2000 Notes from Midterm until Final by Daniyel Hoffman -3-Rambam: 7 Brachos -a-only recited at Chupah; lonely recite last b'racha at Birkas HaMazon -b- need panim chadashos for the full version, and the guests already heard it at chupah -4-Ramach on 7 Brachos -a-wrote, HaGaos, less severe than hasagos -b-we poskin say full b'rachos -5-Rambam-Hil Meuzah 5:4 -a-mutar to write on outside of scroll, in space bet. parshiyos, Sh-D-Y on outside -b-but ppl. who write Names of angels or Kedoshim (martyrs), don't have Olam HaBa -c-tipshim who write angels' names, twisted mitzvah into amulet for personal protection, and has no basis in Judaism -6-Ramach -a-quotes gem. San. As Onkelos saying to Romans that HKBH said Mezuza protects Am Yisrael -i-shows that precedence of earlier generations -b-minhag in BNY to do so VII.-Ra'avad vs. Rambam A-R' Avraham b. Dovid, Ra'avad of Posquirse -a-hasagos we have = 1/3 of what we have -b-made halachic arguments -c-probably thought of Rambam as halachist, not philo B-Yehuda Ibn Tibbin translated Moreh C-Rambam's Perspective on Torah -a-saw halacha as philo approach -b-reason vs. not reasonable things -c-Da'os 3:3-excessive fasting should not be done, b/c won't be able to understand chochmos [either science or Torah] while he fasts & is sick -i-fasting can hurt organs D-Ra'avad's Perspective on Torah -a-Torah = tradition & 4 amos of halacha -b-philo not main thrust E-Rambam A"Z 11:4-person who makes simanim, saying if X happens I'll do Y -a-cites Eliezer Eved Avraham -b-don't do this b/c similar to A"Z F-Ra'avad vs. A"Z 11:4-tzaddikim do this, and if heard him say this, would have burned his face with torches! G-on philo -1-person shouldn't start conversation if can finish it -a-Rambam did this, leaving his ideas to be accepted based on faith H-Disciple of Shiur Koma? NO! -1-some say Ra'avad followed this type of Kabbala -a-anthropomorphized HKBH -2-based on T'shuva 3:7-Rambam says ppl. who anthropomorphize HKBH are Minnim -a-Ra'avad-many simple minded ppl. & literal ppl. did this; don't write them off as Minim I-Method of Hasagos (`Gloss') -1-useful academic device -2-permited critical discussion of points of Rambam -3-was on sefer, that need Yad & need corrections for it -a-always in conjunction w/Yad and used w/it -4-wanted to regulate teachings to own students -5-refined specific halachic points, never thought Rambam would be basic J legal text -a-recognized great points of Yad, but thought parts of it error Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesFinal1.pdf Page 12 of 17 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Landman Spring 2000 Notes from Midterm until Final by Daniyel Hoffman J-Did not start Anti-Maimonidian Controversy -1-GShBE, Remach, Ra'avad didn't start it, but helped set basis for it 5/1/00 VIII. Franco-German Jewry A-intro -1-until 12th Cent., centers of learning somewhat isolated in -a-corrspondence & travel bet. communities existed -2-12th Cent, cross-fertilization occurred -a-Tos. Style of study moved North (in France) & South -b-even Spanish schools -3-Tos. Style & concepts -a-global conception of non-contradictory Talmud -b-explaining diff. seemingly contradictory style -c-Chidushim -4-Rif & Ri Migash System-moved East/West -a-codification of p'sak halacha -b-understanding of learning methodology of Gemara -5-Riza in Lunel & Narbonne argued the value of each system -6-Rambam's Style -a-adhered to S'fardi learning style, but didn't reject Tos. -1-philo moved East/West with Arab/Hebrew translations -2-kabbala moved W/E -3-Yehuda Ibn Tibin translated these: -a-Chovos HaL'vavos, Kuzari (R' Yehuda HaLayvi), Emunos V'Day'os (RSG) -b- Sefer HaShorashim & Sefer HaLishna -4-Shmuel, YIT's son trans. Rambam -a-Ma'amar Tichiyas HaMaysim, Payrush to Avos, Payrush L'Mishnayos, MN B-materials migration C-Provonce, Torah-centered community -1-turned to philo & other secular studies -2-at first, served as recipient of other philo ideals from Spain etc. -3-later created own philo & humanistic culture -a-tried to harmonize Rambam's halacha & philo w/secular philo -4-until 12th cent. R'Gersh & disciples, Rashi et. al. from that area -5-other ppl. from Provonce: predominantly wrote chiddushim, Shu"T, Codes -a-______-Eshkol -b-R' Mushalam b. Ya'akov -c-R' Moshe b. Yosef -d-R' Yitzchak Abba Mori-Itur -e-R' Yonasan HaKohen-payrushim to Rif -f-R' Avraham b. Yarchi-Manhig -g-_______-HaSh'lama -6-these ppl. recognized as corporate group -a-i.e. Chochmay Provonce, Ziknay Narbonne, Chochmay Lunel -b-in S'fardi lands, only have Chochmay S'fard } no communal rabbinic -c-in Germany, only have Chochmay Ashkenaz } body like in France -7-can gain historical cultural activity from those sefer -a-also use non-halachic sources & material -b-use philo & philology (study of words), respected them -c-valued Rambam & S'fard in similar fashion, tried to use his style & combine w/Ashkenzi works -8-others Q'd Y nec. to replicate style -a-simply use orig. sefer!?! Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesFinal1.pdf Page 13 of 17 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Landman Spring 2000 Notes from Midterm until Final by Daniyel Hoffman -b-don't need another Rambam -c-R' Yosef Ibn Kaspi-already have Talmudic-halachic s'farim, don't copy them or style; write on philo b/c no central source for it D-Provonce: Philosophy in Halacha -1-believed in Torah & Umnos -a-but had tutors for philo, b/c can't learn it alone -b-YIT, Avraham Ibn Ezra (?), ____, brought from Spain to spark learning of philo -2-philo concepts included in Talmudic studies by Provonce stages -a-Avumari of Lunel, who disagreed w/use of philo in Halacha, still became will versed in it from learning modern s'farim -b-goyim challenged Sage's usage of philo b/c engaged them in debate & Jews lost, so decided to learn it -c-many thought that philo helped in T'filla -3-Rationalists vs. Centrists (?????) -a-some described themselves as `centrist' -b-some ppl. used allegories to explain Torah concepts IX. Yonason HaKohen of Lunel A-personal history -1-competent in Limuday Torah, very frum, was convinced that Torah is truth -a-felt truth also exists in science & poetry -2-wrote to Ramban -a-secular learning essential to understanding Torah -3-no systematic philo sefer -4-wrote payrushim to many mesechtos -5-ascetic, always prepared for Mashiach (next predicted for 1216) -1-some quoted Moed Katan 28a abt. stars determining various facets of life & death, children, sustenance are not dependent on Z'chus, but on star -b-said determinism problem of punishment through these measures -2-up until now, many Chochomim agreed that stars had influence -a-Shabbos 156a-no mazal for BN"Y b/c we're above it from Avraham -3-Avraham Ibn Ezra, Avraham Ibn Chiyya-accepted astrology -4-Rambam rejected it as tantamount to A"Z -a-Ra'avad-divination only to act on advice from magician or astrologer, but allowed to act on personal premonitions -i-says astrology = Mutar, against Rambam -ii-Eliezer & Yonason didn't sin with it--they davenned -5-R' Moshe M'Koucy (S'MaG)-p'sok li p'sukayich-asking a child for pasuk-not divination -a-Kesef Misha-A"Z 11:5-if act upon that posuk, this is a form of Nevua B-correspondence w/Rambam-1st concern: astrology & halacha C-2nd Correspondence w/Rambam-answered 1199-had 24 Q's on Mishna Torah -1-are there connections to other famous 24's or was it an exact #? -a-similar to Hasagos HaRa'avad -b-may have collected 24 most common or difficult Q's on Yad 5/3/00 X-Sources abt. T'chiyas Maysim (TM) A-1-was affirmed in Chazal, but was not defined by them -2-Sanhedrin 10-Rambam-Payrush Mishnayos -a-man can't comprehend delights of Olam HaBa with logic b/c not experienced it -b-all Chazal state there are future rewards, but specifics not given -3-Sanhedren 31b-______-Ani maymis u'mchayeh -a-many felt this indicated TM--chronological posuk = siman to TM -b-Chazal-proof of ressurection Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesFinal1.pdf Page 14 of 17 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Landman Spring 2000 Notes from Midterm until Final by Daniyel Hoffman -c-Philo-Jewish philosopher-B'rayshis 15:15, v'ata tovo el... -i-means will die and go to fathers?!!? Dead don't go anywhere -ii-ergo must mean TM -d-Rambam-Hil' Milachim-quotes Shmuel-Ayn bayn olam hazeh l'olam haba ele shibud malchiyos bilvad -i-seems to negate precept of TM -4-B"B 17a -a-Rava quotes Iyov 16:19-kolo anan vayalech...Sheol -b-some say this indicates Iyov denies TM -c-Koheles-d-Ben Sira-both ppl. die, not different than animal death -e-Daniyel 12:1-4, Yishayahu 26:19-might say there is TM, but its not of Torah origin -5-Rambam-intro to Mishna Sanhedrin 10, in s"k 13, also in Mishna Torah -a-states belief in physical resurrection, as a cardinal tenant of Judaism -b-in Payrush-spiritual resurrection -6-Mishna Torah 8:2-Olam Haba-lack bodies, just have souls, like M'lachay HaSharays -a-no physical activities then, b/c no body -i-no emotions, physical activities -b-B'rachos 17a-no physical stuff-but Tzaddikim sit with crowns on their heads, and enjoy Sh'china -i-says its clear from here that there is no physical activity, but metaphorical activity -ii-crowns = Yidiya improved -7-Ra'avad-brings proof that Tzaddikim will wear clothes during `asidim' -a-Gem Shabbos-tzaddikim wear white clothes, r'sha'im where black -i-will rise with sicknesses and then later be healed -b-therefore crowns could be actual physical crowns -c-must be physical resurrection 5/8/00 -8-Yad Remah-R' Meir Abulafiya-argues against bodiless Olam HaBa -a-gives 2 answers -i-one answer-Gem B'rachos only one Gemara--no other proof -ii-2nd answer-if Gem says not physical, why need mention lack of physical pleasures too? -iii-answer-2nd type of physical body that lacks physical needs & pleasures -b-no proof for this in Gemara -c-Rambam apparently disputes Providence & reward of BNY for dying `Al Kiddush Hashem -d-body deserves reward as well, and HKBH can do TM to bodies -e-2 way covenant bet. BNY & G-d -i-BNY needs to do mitzvos, G-d needs to reward for struggles during life -ii-body itself struggles in life, and it deserves reward -f-gave his own works to Yonasan HaKohen -9-Moreh Nevochim translated into Hebrew -a-many more issues brought up to argue abt. E-Yonasan HaKohen responded to Aharon of Lunel -1-spoke down to Yad Remah, called him arrogant F-Answers Defending Rambam -1-RSG-2 TM's -a-first = Mashiach, physical -b-second = Gem. B'rachos, abt. Olam HaBa -2-Kesef Mishneh-answers for Rambam-2 TM's -a-one during Mashiach, physical -b-second at Olam HaBa, spiritual Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesFinal1.pdf Page 15 of 17 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Landman Spring 2000 Notes from Midterm until Final by Daniyel Hoffman -c-problem: he didn't have Ma'amar TM, which only mentions one TM G-R' Shayshes Benvinisti of Sara_____, 1131-1210 -1-MD, very wealthy physician to king -a-also philo -2-sent letter to Lunel -a-to rebut Remah's letter -3-dismissed Remah's halachic arguments -4-philo rational plausibility of TM = main concern -a-at Creation, HKBH gave us physical bodies & physical needs -b-bodies must be resurrected as Created, with physical needs -c-doesn't mean HKBH can't change properties of body -i-changes can occur in nature, but are only temporary -ii-Nissim time bound and not permanent -d-HKBH could make the changes, but since no precedent, so we shouldn't suppose that He will make changes until we see it -e-changing Creation implies flaw in original Creation -5-Nissim occur occasionally, and only to help BNY -a-nature itself doesn't change permanently or regularly -i-i.e. Yehoshua & Sun -b-TM in a non-physically dependent body = a basic permanent change -6-TM = intellectual joy gained from knowing HKBH better that b4 -a-resurrection doesn't take place at one point in time; happens daily -b-Chazal spoke abt. physical TM to convey complex concepts to laymen -7-asks K'sil-to which body does the soul return? -a-if original body, its been dead for many years, and decomposed -b-so must be a new body for the neshama; so then there is no resurrection of body itself -c-if new body, why should new body receive reward--hasn't done anything to deserve it -d-based on Plate, Arist. -8-all words of nevua = allegory -9-didn't defend Rambam so much as philo truth -a-also parve to -10-dismissed Ramah as simplistic -a-is Truth of Torah for elites or layman? -b-salvation of BNY = universal XI. Burning of Rambam & Talmud 1232 in Monte Pelilay in Provence A-burning of Talmud & Rambam's MN burned -1-orig. just Rambam, but goyim decided to add Talmud B-3 anti-Rambam scholars blamed for informing goyim -1-R' Soloman b. Avraham of Monte Pelilay & following students: -2-R' Dovid b. Shaul -3-R' Yonah b. Dovid Gerundi C-some scholars see these ppl. as alone in desire to burn it -1-they put books in cherem -2-prohibited study of science -3-put cherem on: a) studiers of Rambam b) studied too much aggada D-debate if could have been informants -1-total betrayal of another Jew -2-would never have been quoted again by other Rabbanim -3-R' Yonah's payrushim & philo widely used E-R' Yonah gained support for cherem from France, but not Provence -1-Provence Jews counter-banned those who prohibited learning Rambam & philo -a-may be why he's blamed for the burning F-R' Yonah worked in Toledo at high position -1-wrote mussar s'farim -2-known informers would not be tolerated in public Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesFinal1.pdf Page 16 of 17 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Landman Spring 2000 Notes from Midterm until Final by Daniyel Hoffman -a-Smag quotes these people G-R' Yonah not mentioned by R' Avraham b. Rambam as opponent of him -1-some others were Talmudists following faulty tradition H-Ramban wrote to France abt. cherem -1-asked to rescind cherem vs. Rambam -a-Rambam was mikarev many lost Jews w/MN -b-Cherem drove away many Jews, so should be gotten rid of -c-Provence's cherem has boundaries--only in city with that B"D's authority -2-R' Yonah = Ramban's nephew -a-some said R' Yonah's mother = pilegesh -b-defended him vs. ad homonym attack even though rejected views I-Aftermath-Machlokes didn't stop with above 3 phases -1-1400's-Jews of Xian Spain saw Rambam as cause for apostesy -a-Derech Emuna defended rationalism as part of Judaism -b-science complements faith -2-R' Yechiel b. Shmuel of Piza-Minchas Kinaos-atk'd Rambam -a-his community, however, accepted rationalism -3-Rema vs. R' Shlomo Luria (Rashal) -a-Rema-Teshuva 687-defended rambam Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com JHI1300LanNotesFinal1.pdf Page 17 of 17 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course JEWISH HIS 1300 taught by Professor Lan during the Spring '08 term at Yeshiva.

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