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Unformatted text preview: JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Rosensweig Essay #1: Origins of Eastern European Jewry and structures and functions of the Jewish Community in Poland. ` ` and attitude of the State and Church in Poland towards the Jews. 2 theories on the emergence of E.European Jewery. 1)Eastern Theory- Jews came out of the Khazars, who had lived between the Arabs and Byzantins from 740 through the end of the 11th century. Koestler supports that in his book, `The 13th Tribe'. 2)Western Theory- E.European community developed as a result of a combo of the Persecution and Trade theories. R. Rosensweig supports it. Koestler's proofs- (coin travels to Shtetl crushing it, they give it Kahzar name, thousands invade) 1) The coins found in Polan were similar to those of Khazar Kingdom 2) Khazars went to Hungary and then to Poland. 3) The Polish shtetl was very similar to Khazar way of life. 4) Polish places had Khazar names 5) Large number of Polish Jews (500,000) couldn't have come from German origins, because large % was killed in Black Plague and Crusades. R. Rosensweig's refutations1) Same coins found in Germany 2) Khazars were very rebellious and ergo unlikely to set up religious structure 3) Shtetl way of life was in Germany too 4) Names of the places had Polish meanings unrelated to Khazars. 5) There were only 170,000 Jews in Poland. And overestimated how many Jews killed R. Rosensweig's proofs- (yiddish minhag rights) 1) Language was yiddish, a german extraction. 2) They kept ashkenazic customs 3) Rights of Jews of Poland were similar to Germany. According to this theory, the Jews were brought to Poland by invitation, in order to fill void; to create a middle class who could trade. So Germans and German Jews were brought in. Germans got rights under the Mardeburg Laws, and the Jews got rights through a charter of Prince Bolishov in 1264. The charter included 37 points, some being: (7) 1) Jews couldn't be charged higher tolls 2) Any lawsuit affecting Jews would be judged by the Voyevoda(the Jew's judge) 3)Non-Jewish testimony against a Jew had to be substantiated by a Jew. 4) Christian who murdered a Jew was subject to death and loss of property. 5) The laws of Shabbos and Yomtove were protected 6)Laws of Shechita were protected. 7) A blood libel had to be substantiated by 6, otherwise accuser was dead. The rights went counter to church. So they responded with Council of Breslav in 1267. (6) 1)Jews could live only in certain Jewish areas. 2) One shul per city 3)Couldn't sell wine or medicine 4)Couldn't own Christian Slaves 5)Jews had to stay home as Christian possessions passed. 6)Had to wear special hats. However, many of these church policies were ignored because of the economic reasons of the state. Downloaded by: www.yumesorah.com Page 1 of 11 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Rosensweig The rights given to the Jews by the govt. allowed them to have a strong and structured community. Structure was made up of Vaad Arbah Artzot, which operated for 200 years. It had 2 bodies: 1)Roshei Hamidenot- prestigious community members who were elected. 2)Marei Tzedek- great talmudic scholars appointed based on scholarship. The Vaad: (6) 1) Regulated the economy 2) Collected taxes 3) Judicial decisions 4) Regulated communal life 5)defended the Jewish community 6) Gave seal of approval on all books. * Most notable achievement: created Heter Iska, which allowed Jews to lend to Jews on interest. Essay #2: Discuss life of Jew community in Spain from 1391-1492 , and attitude of Jew community towards Moranos. The Jewish community of Spain went through 3 periods. 1) Reconquest- Jews were viewed as allies and treated nicely. A jew, Abraham Segnor, was administrator of the crown. (But Burghers hated the Jews) 2) Golden Age- Lots of Jewish scholarship. Rav Yonah of Grundi wrote peirush on the gemorah and wrote S.T. Ramban wrote peirush on talmud, and milchemes, many teshuvot. Forced out cause of fight with Pablo. Rashba was rav of Barcelona, many teshuvot and commentary on gemorah. Rash wrote many teshuvot. He had 2 sons. 1) Rav Yehuda ben Asher who wrote the zichron yehuda. 2) Baal Haturim, who wrote the S.A. 3)Decline- (1391-1492). John I of Castile died leaving his infant son to take over. The mother Lerona ruled and she was rabid catholic. Her priest, Feran Martinez incited the masses against Jews. June 4, 1391, mobs kill 4000 Jews in Castille. Riots spread. 50,000 Jews killed. Broke Jewish moral and began to baptize. Jews more likely to baptize in Spain cause: 1) Already assimilated 2) More interested in Sp. Philo than Torah. 3) Prof Gershon Cohen says because they grew up with idea of Maranoism. (3 jews: committed , converted, Moranos). Anti-Jewish legislation is passed: 1)Jews couldn't recite birchas haminim. 2) Couldn't Judge their own 3) Couldn't circumcise muslim slaves. Got worse with legislation of John II: (jews arabs torn apart, doctor tries to put em together, he wants
tax in return, so he goes to court, "leave the Jew alone", doctor has distinct clothes, take away name `doc', he grows bears while cutt off from all) (8) 1)Jews and Muslim must live separate. 2)Couldn't practice medicine or sell food to non-Jews. 3)Couldn't collect tax 4)No own courts. 5)Couldn't bother Jew who wanted conversion. 6) Specific clothes 7)No honorific titles. 8) Must have beards, 9) No social contact with others. Also incitement against Jews led by former Jews. Alfanso Valladolid said Tashbap was a code of robbery. Geronimo DE Santafai led the disputations at Tortosa. Overall 67 debates, with jews being represented by R'Alboh and Razah. All this terror led many Jews to convert to Christinaity on outside: Meranos. Different Downloaded by: www.yumesorah.com Page 2 of 11 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Rosensweig feelings towards them. 1)Prophiate Deron in his Ma'aseh Eiphod writes that G-d doesn't persecute Jews who worship other gods in times of persecution 2) Akeidas Yitzchak writes that such Jews didn't really change their religion. 3) Tashbaitz said he would defend moranos for saving themselves. 4) Rav Yosef Ibn Shuf said they could've found another way out. The Church realized that conversion wasn't real. They discussed Purity of Blood issue. This led to Inquisition. Expulsion under Ferdinand and Isabella. General conclusion was that this was all "Mipnei Chateinu." Essay #3: Discuss the tax structure of Jews in 14th and 15th Germany. In the 14th, and 15th, the Jews of Germ. were a major source of revenue to the Germ. Govt. The govt would impose many taxes and the community would be responsible for payments. Jews paid both internal and external taxes. That was only interaction between Jews and Non-Jews. A number of different taxes were levied on the Jewish community. 1) Judenstever- an annual tax, that allowed the Jews to maintain their residence and provided protection 2) Golden Penny- 1342 Louis IV needed money so he instituted this tax. It said any Jew over 12 with 20 gulden, had to give one of them to him. Generally Ignored. 3) Extraordinary Tax- paid by Jews to fund war and pay for Kings personal pleasures. 4) Coronation Tax- 1434, by Sigismund because he needed the money. Initially they refused to pay but in end they were forced to pay 1,500 gulden. They were evaluated and collected in the following way: 1)Jews negotiated with govt how much it would pay 2)The tax was split up amongst members of the community. You're a member if = Acc. to R' Meanachem you lived there for 30 days. Or acc to Rav Isirlin you stated your intention to stay. Or acc to Rav yaccov Weil your actions indicated your intention to stay. 3)The tax was collected through parnassim under the guidance of the Rav 4)Takanot were made, that created a cherem for those who tried to pay their taxes seperately from the community and for those who paid their taxes late. Each individual was required to pay a certain amount. The amount was determined in one of two ways 1) Self assessment- each person declares their taxable income under oath. This tax was based on land holdings. 2)Communal Assessment- Any income you had from property, business, or interest from loans was taxed; however, the house you lived in , its contents and money used for bribes to gain ones freedom was not taxed. In 16th century a similar tax collection process would be undertaken by the Vaad Arbaj Artzos in Poland. Essay #4: Relationship between Jews and Christians in the early Middle Ages In the early Middle Ages, both the Church and Rabbinate promoted segregation. But relationships were usually good. Church defined its seg rules at 4th Laterin Council, where they said Jews had to wear Yellow badge. At Council of Bretlsav they said Jews must wear a special hat. Downloaded by: www.yumesorah.com Page 3 of 11 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Rosensweig The Rabbinate based its segregation on the Talmud. Due to avodah zarah they prohibited the use of Yayin Nesech. A Jew could not cause a non-Jew to swear; and Jews couldn't do business with goyim 3 days before goy holidays. Connection: 1)They went to each others weddings 2)They gave gifts to each other 3)They drank with each other. 4) Commentary to Tanach was inspired by Christian scholars. Barriers: 1)Religions had different symbols 2)Christians would burn Jewish bibles. 3)Sense of martyrdom developed among jews. Due to business dealings, it became necessary for Rabbi's to define status of Christians. 1)Rashi and Rashba said although they were ACUM , Jews could still do business dealings with them, albeit w/o a shavuoh. 2)Rav Yitzchok allowed it alts shaas hadchak 3) Rav Yechiel of Paris said the issur of business was only on the big 7. 4) We could even prosper by learning from their scholars. 5) When Chassedei Ashkenaz emerged they disallowed any connection to C's. They viewed us as being in eternal servitude, because they saw it as proof that those who rebel against Jesus fail. This lead to Blood Libel accusations, poisoning of meat and wine, and crushing the wafer of Transubstantiation (in order to kill Jesus). Essay #5: The reemergence of Jewish Life in Germany and N. France in the Post Crusade period with emphasis on the role of Rashi and Chasidei Ashkenaz. Things were never the same for Jews of Germ after First Crusade. 1) In 1095 the Pope Urban II declared the 1st crusade to liberate holy land from Muslims. The Jews of France found out about this, and they wrote to Jews of Germany to fast and daven, however, they felt secure. 2) In 1096 the Crusades begin. Whole communities of Germany are wiped out. They attack Jews because: a) they were rich b) Once they were killing muslim heretics , why not kill Jews too. 3) The Jews arranged for protection but most of the promises were broken. In Meinz, the archbishop gave up the Jews and 1300 were killed. In Regansburg they told the crusaders that no Jews lived there since they baptized all of them in the river (i.e. drowned them). Some places they did keep promise , like Speyer ,where only 11 killed. 4) Devastating effect on Jewish community i) One out of every 4 Jews in the Rhineland had been killed. ii) Jewish scholarship was almost completely wiped out. iii) Jews forced to go into money lending, since they could not join the guilds. iv) No longer controlled roads, ergo insecure about protection v) New concept of martydom arose, making berachot and using the halachik definitions of shechita. vi) New problems of how to deal with Jews who converted under duress. Ashkenazik tradition was in danger of being lost. Luckily Rashi took a lot of notes. All our knowledge of ashkenaz minhagim is based Downloaded by: www.yumesorah.com Page 4 of 11 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Rosensweig on Rashi's reconstruction of them. Chasidei Ashkenaz were also key in continuing torah scholarship. They passed on original Kabbalah from Abu Ahaorn of Baghdad through their family. It eventually was written in Sefer Chasidim by Rav Yehuda. -The relationship between Jews and Christians was now very bad. At 4th Laterin , C's said Jews had to wear yellow badge. Also instituted concept of transsubstantion, and accused Jews of desecrating the Host. Also, Blood Libels. First in 1114 when William of Norich was missing, and the Jews were accused of taking him to reenact crucifixion. Libels such as these occurred as late as 1926. They began to view Jew as subhuman creature with tails and horns. Essay #6: Discuss the position of the Jews in pre-crusade period in terms of background and achievements. We know that as early as 4th century Jews existed in Germany, because Constantine ordered edicts against them in 321. Nonetheless, they seem to disappear in 6th Century and don't reappear until 9th century. Either cause 1)no documents survived. 2) Graets says that when Germans left, Jews left with them. In the 9th century Jews reappear under rule of Charlemagne. He wanted to improve his commercial trading ventures on Mediterranean, and he chose the Jews to do this. The Jews were good for this because : 1)Only they could bridge gap between Muslims and C's on Mediterranean. 2) Jews had system of Universal education, so every Jew was able to read, write,etc. 3) Jews all spoke a little Hebrew , so could converse with Jews all over. 4)Jews had Universal Discipline based on Talmud 5) Jews felt at home wherever they went. 6) They knew the roads, and established protection for themselves on them, which allowed for easy transport. 7) Jews looked after eachother. Next was Louis the Pious. He granted three charters of privilege to Jews: 1)Emperor would protect lives and possessions of Jews; Jews had freedom of movement and commerce and the same taxes as everyone else. 2) Jews could participate in slave trade. 3) Jews could bring lawsuits against non-jews. There were also permitted to: 1) Sell wine, meat, and medicine. 2) Could only convert after a 3 day waiting period to show real conviction 3) Could govern themselves and be judged by Jews. Jews became the principle traders in the region. As a result, 1) The market day in Lyon, Fr. Was changed from Shabbos to Sunday. 2) Prof Agus says that a Jew could make anywhere from %300-500 on a trading mission 3) Jews lived very well Lots of religious development, especially in Meintz. 2 major jewish families emerged. 1) The Kalynomous family was invited by Charles the Fat to settle in Meintz. They wrote the Rokeach. 2) The Abun family. They spread scholarship to Worms, Spier , and other areas. Rabbeinu Gersom. He wrote his own copy of gemorah, wrote selichot, teshuvot, and was a dynamic teacher. He had famous takanot: Downloaded by: www.yumesorah.com Page 5 of 11 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Rosensweig 1) a man can't divorce wife against will, and no polygamy. 2) Anyone who comes into the city for business could be summoned by the court. 3) Private life: a) you can't read someone else's letters. B) remind a ger of their past. C) kick a Jew out of the Shul for more then one month. *All these takanot were punishable by cherem. The church was not happy with high position of Jews. 1) Agaboard, the Bishop of Lyons, was angry with the change of the market day and new Jewsih shuls, so he said that Jews were bad influence. 2) In 1012 Jews were converted in Meinz (included Rabeinu Gershom's son). -All in all, in the pre-crusade era there was a strong Jewish community with many talmidei chachamim. The population was religiously educated. Essay #7: Black Death, the accusation against the Jews, and aftermath of this tragedy. 1348 there was turning point in Jewish life in Germany. The Black Plague began to come into Germany from C. Asia. It killed close to 25,000,000. Three different theories as to what caused the plague. 1)astrology caused it. 2) Punishment from G-d, because the population of Europe had sinned. (Clement VI said it was pestilence sent by G-d to afflict C's). 3) Earthquake caused poisonous fumes to contaminate the water. Originally Jews suffered less because they had better hygiene and medicine, but in the end it hit em also. Jews were accused of poisoning wells for various reasons. 1) Christian greed for Jewish money. 2) Jews were devils. 3) Council of Bretslav had proclaimed that Jews poisoned meat and medicine, ergo this followed. Church tortured Jews and made them confess to causing the plague. Results were terrible: 1) They were tortured and burnt alive. 1800 killed in Strassburg. 400 in Worms. 6000 in Meints. 20,000 in total. 2) Jewish money was confiscated and any papers with a Jewish name was burnt. 3) Accusations of well poisoning lasted until 1422, even though Martin V issued bull saying it was false. 4) Church attitude to Jews worsened. 5) Jews could no longer own homes 6) Jewish scholarship decreased. 7) Jews were expelled and moved to Poland. ------In the mid-15th century great Jewish scholarship would once again exist in Germany. Essay # 8: The historical role of Safed and its achievements. After Jews kicked out of Spain, many went to Portugal. Kicked out from there in 1496. Ergo, Jews went to many different places. Large body went to Safed. Went there for many reasons: 1) Very close Turkey, so Jews from Turkey already there. 2) It was on trade route from Syria. 3) Land had no significance to any other religion other then Judaism. For Jews it was very holy cause many Tannaim burried there. Ergo community grew and was called Kehillat Hakedosha Di'Safed. Downloaded by: www.yumesorah.com Page 6 of 11 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Rosensweig A number of customs developed there: 1] They would dress in white, and sing and dance to greet shabbos. 2] Tikun Lel shavout 3] Yom Kippur Katan. Also known for development in learning. Rav Cairo wrote S'A, there (it wasn't accepted until Ramah added Ashkenazik halachos). He wrote Kesef Mishnah, Beis Yosef. In addition, Lurianic Kabbalah developed under R' Yitzchok Luria. The Ari and Rav Vital also lived there. One of the most major developments took place under Rav Yaccov Berav. He wanted to reinstitute semicha, for based on Rambam it would quicken the arrival of Mashiach. Via this: 1) Beis Din would give malkos to Merranos. 2) All Jews unified under one authority. *So in 1538 he gathered together 25 chachmei sefard and they agreed to renew semicha. They appointed Rav Berav to give out semicha. Rav Levi Ibn Chaviv, the chief Rabbi of Jerusalem recited disfavor ably to this for a number of reasons. 1) All the Rabbi's of Israel are needed to restart the Semicha. 2) He didn't like the Messianic fervor it was causing. 3) He questioned whether the Rambam really felt this would lead to the Geulah. 4) It would take away from Jerusalem. 5) It would create a rift amongst Jews. 6) The turks would view it as a submissive act. - Because of all this opposition, the movement died out. Essay #9: Role of Rambam in development of Jewish scholarship Born in Cordova, Spain 1135. In 1145 forced out of Spain and fled to Fez. Later he would go to Israel. He was Talmid Chacham, philo, and doctor. Wrote works in each field. Most famous philo work was the Moreh, where he tries to defend the Torah Philosophically. It was revolutionary since many rabbis were against integration of both. However, it was viewed as a necessity to defend against missionaries. Nonetheless, Rambam begins with a warning, that it contains many confusing ideas. In medical field Rambam wrote 10 treatises, many of which were used until recent. Most famous work is Yad Hachazaka. Legal code including pertinent and nonpertinent. Easy and understandable language; however, each word contains lots of meaning and interpretation. Also authored the Milot HaHigaon, which was introductory work to logic and philosophy. Also wrote Mamar Hadibur, which combined science and halacha. It spoke about the mechanics and principles of Jewish calendar. Also famous for many teshuvot and advice. Iggeres Hashmad, Iggeres Teiman. The first dealt with problem of forced conversions. And second was a letter to the Jews of Yemen who were suffering. Spent most of his life in Cairo, where he became chief doctor to Sultan. He had a strong impact on the area and made it the center of the Muslim Jewish world. Married twice. Essay # 10: Rashi in the post crusade period and his contributions. Downloaded by: www.yumesorah.com Page 7 of 11 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Rosensweig Rashi's father died at young age. Ergo he was forced to stay home and help his mother. Nevertheless, when he did get to go to Yeshiva he learnt under Rav Yaccov. He learnt fervently and took meticulous notes. It was through these notes that the Ashkenazic tradition was saved from extinction after first crusade. After the crusade his peirush became very popular. Its beauty is that it can say so much in such few words. He now also became the Torah scholar of Troies. Many other rabbanim help keep the scholarship. Rav Yitzchok ben Shmuel helped move rabbinic scholarship to Champaigne. Rav Shimon ben Elyakim was a leading political figure of Jews in worms. Rav Natan sent questions about Jewish rituals. Rav Yitzchok sent his talmidim to champagne. Rav David Halevi and Rav Menachem were leaders in Meintz. Rashi had 3 daughters : Mirriam, yocheved, and Rachel. M wed Yehuda ben Rav Natan. Y married Rav Meir Ben Shmuel. R wed but was later divorced. Yocheved had 4 scholarly children: R'T, Rashbam, Revam, and Rav Shlomo; for that she and her husband received name Avi Harabanim. Rashbam was a takeoff of Rashi. He authored commentary on Talmud and Chumash. He also wrote Sefer Dyachute. R'T became one of the Baalei Hatosfot. Rashi also started a Yeshiva with his son in law in Troies. At first it only had a few talmidim, but it later became a center of learning. They learnt everything there, including Agadetah, which Rashi especially liked. Rashi also tried to absorb the entire Mesorah and pass it on to others. He studied both Tanach and Talmud. In Tanach he made a number of advances. He studied P'shat using insights from the Gemorah and using grammatical etymology and syntax. He also gave drash, which was more advanced. He divided pesukim into 2 categories 1)Legal 2)Historical. The former he interpreted in the simple meaning , while the latter he gave a Pshat and Drash meaning. Most of his Torah commentary is Drash, while most of his Nach is pshat. In talmud he had the biggest impact. His commentaries would anticipate and simplify the gemorah's questions. He revised it 3 times: 1) After returning from Yeshiva. 2) After he acquired students. 3) After crusade. In all he wrote on 30 masechtot with general purpose of A)giving the proper Girsah B)Explaining technical phrases C) Anticipating a pattern D) Rarely giving a pesak. ----- He wrote 300 teshuvot on a variety of subjects asked by students. Wrote Sefer Hapardes which dealt with Berachot, Tefillah, Shechita, marriage, and other rituals. Also, machzor vitri is based on his notes. Essay #11: Role of the Rabbi in 14th century and 15th century Germany. Most important role in autonomous Jewish community. In charge of all aspects of community. He became such either by invitation or by creating his own community. In order to be qualified he had to have smicha and had to be able to answer regular sheilot. Once he came he became the chief religious functionary. Shochet, Chazan, sofer, etc relied on his approval. He had control over the Parnassim (tax collectors) of community. It was his responsibilty to build Yeshiva and learn with students. He was also in charge of maintaining their dorms. He was not paid by community, many times (controversially) he would get money for special occasions. Since he was not paid, he usually was a money lender. Downloaded by: www.yumesorah.com Page 8 of 11 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Rosensweig Dayan, interpret old Takanot, make new ones. Made pesharas. Also served as administrator. 1)As Ibn Ezra says, he had to be honest and stand up to those who disregarded the law. 2) He decided disputes. 3)He upheld the customs of the community. 4) He had use of Cherem. 5)He made sure the poor had comfort, by having court fines given to them. Essay #12: Emergence of Shabtai Tzvi movement, its development and impact on Jewish community. It began in mid 17th century. A # of possible causes for its emergence. 1) The 30 years war just ended, leaving the area destabalized, opening the door to ferment. 2) Many christians such as the Melinarians believed that in 1666 there would be second coming of Jesus. 3) Many had become Moranos so it wasn't hard for them to believe in Messiah. Because they grew up with idea of Jesus being messiah. 4) The Moranos wanted to discredit C's. 5) Prof.Gravitz says that Chmileniki Uprising had impact. 6) Prof Katz says that new communication methods allowed word to spread faster and ergo movement grew. 7) In Ramabam's Iggeres Teiman he says the Messiah will begin in Israel, and that's where S.T. was. 1626, born in Smarnu Turkey. As young boy learnt kabbalah. Prof Shalom points out that he was paranoic and manic depressant. He claimed to hear voices telling him he was Messiah. People of town rejected him. He left to Israel. There he met Nathan of Gaza, another mystic. He declared him as messiah. Acc to Prof. Zeitlin cause he was a PR man. Acc to Prof. Shalom out of sincerity. He began to attract followers. The Rabbi's of Jerusalem informed the Turkish authorities (cause he was going against halacha). He went back home and revealed himself as Moshiach. It spread like wildfire. He felt: 1) Davening procedure should change. 2) 9th of Av a Yom Tov ---- Some like Rabbi Saul Sasportas combated him. They didn't accept him because he was a)sexually promiscuous , b)Lived with divorce wife, and had affair with an Eishet Ish. c) He called woman to the Torah. Eventually he was summoned to Constantinople, where the Sultan accused him and sent him to prison. His followers continued to rally behind him. In sept 1666 he was brought to Andrianople where he was given a choice of conversion or death. He converted and became Muhammad Afandi. Most now abandoned the movement, but few such as Donmeh's who converted with him Horrible results: 1) Those who opposed persecuted the followers. 2) Failure of Rabbis to speak out lead many to lose their faith in them. 3) Lost feeling of pride. 3) He served as role model for future charismatic leaders such as Baal Shem Tov, and Teddy Herzl. Essay #13: The role of Rambam and the Maimonidean Controversy 3 stages to controversy. 1) He wrote Yad cause: Downloaded by: www.yumesorah.com Page 9 of 11 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Rosensweig a) Felt that Geonim needed some subordination, cause they felt too supreme. b) The learning in Bavel was too abstract. c) Wanted to integrate Torah and Science. The Gaonim attacked him for this. On a theological level they were upset cause i) no sources ii) omitted dissenting opinions iii) Accused of not believing in Techiyas Hameitim. iv) Not all agreed with his halachot. v) Raivid attacked cause of Rambam's claim that anthrophomorphism is heresy. On a methodological level, people like Rav Shmuel ben Eli disagreed cause in his Hakdama it seemed as though this was to take place of learning gemorah. 2) After Rambams death the controversy focused just on Moreh. a) He tried to connect philo and Torah, so he was accused of interpreting Torah allegorically. (They may have accused cause C's has same attack in their own) b) It dealt with Kabbalah. Rav Yehuda Haleivi warned not to let "weak wisdom" tempt you. But Radak traveled all over defending it. c) Many of Rabbis of N.France tried to put it in Cherem; before they could the Monks burnt the books of the Rambam. The did this cause: i) Take advantage of situation and divide jews. ii) Opponents of Ramabam influenced them to. After this R' Yonah realized mistake. Did Teshuva via book writing. 3) Against Rabbis who were interpreting torah in allegorical sense. Ex. Tefillin not a real mitzvah, but rather a allegory. So Rashba made 2 takanot in Barcelona. A) No Greek Books study until 25. B) Greek philosophy books would be burned. Meiri made counter-cherem that by 25 all must learn Rambam. Controversy ended in 1306 when Jews expelled from France. Essay #14: Vaad Arbah Artzot It was formed in Poland and Lithuania at end of 16th and lasted close to 200 years. Controlled religious, economic, social, and structural makeup. They would 2 times a year, once in Lublin and once in Yaruslov, during the Itnt'l trade shows. It was made up of 2 bodies. First were Roshei Hamidinot. Elected individuals usually most prestigious Jews. Second was Marei Tzedek. Talmidei Chachamim, got job based on scholarship. At head of orgo was Parnespresident, a laymen, and the Neman VP, who was a Rabbi. Served many purposes (7) : 1) Tax collection. It was negotiated between govt and Vaad. 2) Regulated Jewish econ life. Prohibited Jews from entering certain fields, such as money lending, out of fear of Anti-Semitism. Made bankruptcy legislations and didn't let Jews undermine each others business. Created Heter Iska 3) Regulated where Jews could live 4) Provided protection 5) Supervised communal life (i.e. dress code and entertainment) 6) Made judicial decisions. 7) Seal of approval on books. Purpose of seal was really only to make money. Downloaded by: www.yumesorah.com Page 10 of 11 JHI 1300 Medieval Jewish History Rabbi Rosensweig *Vaad enforced via Cherem After the Chmelnicki Uprising, the Vaad proclaimed day of mourning and fast on 20th of sivan. Kept until 1939. It also composed new kinot and selichot and forbade Jews from wearing velvet or silk for 3 years. Essay #15: Attitude of Church towards Jews in 13th Cent. 13TH was time of increasing power for church. During this period, 3 of strongest popes were in Power: Innocent III, Gregory IX, Innocent IV. Theoretically they maintained position of Greg III , that: 1) Jewish status remains status quo. 2) No forced baptism. a) But Innocent III ruled that Jews were in Servetum Perpetorum because they crucified Oyso Ish. He also said that baptism under coercion is still good. He redefined force and said force was only when blood started to run. On the other hand, the popes tried to help Jews. Both Inno and Greg issued Bulls telling crusaders to leave Jews alone. Inn IV realized that the blood libels motives were unfounded. It was done out of greed. However, those decrees had little effect. The popes were nice for a number of reasons: 1) Jews existence proves Jesus. 2) Jews in a degraded state proves triumph of C's. 3) Yoshka commanded that they should wait patienty to convert the Jews. 4) Paul said remnant of Jews would always remain. On one hand they had to keep Jews alive but on the other hand they had to remain second class citizens. Ergo Church made decrees prohibiting Jews from having Christian slaves or nurses. Other reasons for this was: i) C's might have relations with Jews if they were in such close proximity. iii) Jews were smarter and ergo may persuade to convert. Jews were also degraded in other areas. Politically, Jews could not hold public office or serve in the military. Economically, church urged C's not to pay back debts. Socially, at the 4th Lat they decreed that all Jews wear Yellow badge. Their reason was: a) Moses commanded Jews to dress differently b) It would stop C's from having relations with Jews. Attempts to Religiously degrade em also occurred. Nicholis Donin, a previous Jew turned Jew-hater wanted to get Jews. He wrote letter to Pope saying the Talmud was non-divine with many errors and that it insulted C's bible. Pope agreed and sent letters to all bishops of Paris telling them that this was the cause for Jewish stubbornness. This led them to seize 24 wagon loads of Seforim and the trial was set. Jews were represented by Rav Yechiel of Paris, and the judge was Queen Mother Blanche. Jews lost and on June 26 , 1242 the Seforim were burnt. Rav Meir of Rotenberg was there, and he wrote a Kinah. Downloaded by: www.yumesorah.com Page 11 of 11 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course JEWISH HIS 1300 taught by Professor Lan during the Spring '08 term at Yeshiva.
- Spring '08
- The Bible