EGM Drugz SG 2 - Emily G Mullins Lecture 10(10\/1 blood alcohol level(BAL or concentration(BAC BAL of grams of ethanol in 100mL of blood approx = of

EGM Drugz SG 2 - Emily G Mullins Lecture 10(10/1 blood...

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Emily G. Mullins Lecture 10 (10/1) blood alcohol level (BAL) or concentration (BAC) BAL: # of grams of ethanol in 100mL of blood approx = % of alcohol in the blood BAC: Blood Alcohol Concentration all the following numbers are influenced by tolerance acute effects of alcohol and corresponding BAL: relaxation, anxiolytic, disinhibition, impairment of coordinated movement, impairment of memory storage (alcohol blackout), sleep (passing out, loss of consciousness), death 0.01 threshold intoxication • 0.04 relaxation, behavioral disinhibition, impaired judgment • 0.08 legally intoxicated, reaction time and coordination impaired • 0.15 gross intoxication, balance and movement impaired • 0.30 loss of consciousness • 0.40 approximate human LD 50 therapeutic index (TI): dose of the drug that yields the optimal medicinal effects higher TI is safer lower TI is more dangerous because it’s very easy to overdose lethal dose is really close to what you’d take for meds TI = lethal dose/therapeutic dose = LD 50/therapeutic dose same thing TI for ethyl alcohol - .4/.04 ~ 10 prevalence of alcohol use and abuse 2013 data from persons 12+ years old… use ever: 81.5% (214 million) use in past year: 66.3% (174 million) use in past month: 52.2% (137 million) at least 15% of current users have alcohol abuse problems (~20 million) current use: consumption in past month prevalence of alcohol abuse in general medical practice outpatient: ~15% inpatient: ~40% economic cost of alcohol abuse: > $150 billion per year ~50% of auto accidents are alcohol related ~30% of suicides are alcohol related chronic effects of alcohol on health liver problems: fatty liver, hepatitis, cirrhosis pancreatitis: inflammation of the pancreas gastrointestinal problems cardiovascular problems nervous system problems: peripheral neuropathy nerve damage or when disease affects the nerves cerebral atrophy loss of neurons and the connections between them larger ventricles and smaller brain tissue volume cognitive impairment any barrier to the cognitive process “Drugs and the Brain” Fall 2015 Key Concepts - 1
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Emily G. Mullins fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) fetal alcohol effects are known as FAE prenatal and postnatal growth retardation malformations of facial structure CNS abnormalities: mental retardation, attention deficits, other behavioral problems teratogenic: drugs that cause mutations to the fetus, like tobacco and alcohol effects of light alcohol use beneficial < 1-2 drinks per day… increased HDL HDL: good cholesterol because it helps remove LDL from arteries decreased LDL LDL: bad cholesterol because it contributes to plaque in arteries decreased atherosclerosis atherosclerosis: plaque and thickening of artery walls as result of invasion/accumulation of white blood cells decreased heart attack risk negative effects increased risk of female breast, oral, and esophageal cancer
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  • Fall '15
  • Midterm Exam 2 Study Guide, Morphine, Cannabis, Emily G. Mullins

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