Study guide wks 12-15 - Study Guide Weeks 12-15 Define the...

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°Study Guide Weeks 12-15°°Define the following terms:°-Greatest happiness principle (Mill): In order to determine the right action, we need to compute the amount of happiness that each possible action generates and choose the one that generates the most.°-Higher and lower pleasures (Mill): Idea that not all pleasures produce the same amount of happiness. Lower pleasures can be intense and enjoyable, but higher ones are qualitatively better and more fulfilling… we uniformly prefer the higher pleasures.°-Act-utilitarianism: The right action is the one that directly produces the best balance of happiness over unhappiness for all concerned.°-Rule-utilitarianism: The morally right action is not the one that directly brings about the greatest good but the one that produces the greatest good for all ifthe end is achieved by consistently following a rule.°-Supererogatory action: Actions that are not required but are praiseworthybecause they are above and beyond what is required.°-Hypothetical imperative: Says that you should act if you have some goal and desire (ex. I want a good grade, so I’m going to study)°-Categorical Imperative: An imperative that we should follow regardless of our particular wants and needs.°-Formula of universal law (Kant): The morally right action is the one done in accordance with the categorical imperative. Every action implies a rule or maxim saying always do this in these circumstances. An action is right if and only if you could rationally will the rule to be universal.°-Means-end Principle: Always act in such a way that you treat humanity never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end.°-Original Position (Rawls): Each actor is imagined to be acting on her own self-interest, however each is imagined to be behind a ‘veil of ignorance.’°-Veil of Ignorance (Rawls): A device that we are supposed to use to imagine the situation we will be in when we make special circumstances (ex. deprivation of information…. race, religion, etc.)
°Nagel:°1. What does Nagel think is the significance of the question “how would you like it if someone did that to you?”

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