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18-Advanced Topics in Gas Laws

18-Advanced Topics in Gas Laws - Advanced Topics in Gas...

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Advanced Topics in Gas Laws B. A. Rowland 53750/53760 Gas Stoichiometry (Dry) The idea behind dry gas stoichiometry is to use the ideal gas law in conjunction with regular stoichiometric methods to calculate how much gas is produced (or consumed, or produces another product, etc). These don't involve collection over water, so we term them dry problems. Practice Problem 1: CaO is produced by the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate. Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide produced at STP from the decomposition of 152 g of calcium carbonate by the reaction: Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures Now we would like to focus our attention on mixtures of gases. John Dalton noticed that the total pressure of a mixture of gases can be expressed as the sum of each individual pressure exerted by a gas as if it were the only one. This is known as Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure. In the figure on the slide, you see that a mixture of hydrogen and helium has a pressure of 10.1 atm at these conditions. However, if we were to isolate the hydrogen we'd find a pressure of 2.9 atm; isolating the helium and measuring the pressure would yield 7.2 atm. Note how the mixture (hydrogen + helium) has a total pressure which is equal to the sum of the individual pressures exerted by just the hydrogen and just the helium. Mathematically, we can write: P Total = P 1 + P 2 + P 3 + P 4 + P 5 + … Where the subscripts represent each individual component in the mix.
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