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Lecture 14 Crystal Field Theory

Lecture 14 Crystal Field Theory - Crystal Field Theory B A...

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Crystal Field Theory B. A. Rowland 53750/53760 Bonding with a Transition Metal Up until this point we have only been concerned with compounds formed from the main- group elements. We have yet to describe bonding for compounds containing transition metals. Unlike the main-group elements, transition metals extensively use their d-orbitals in order to form bonds. Most of the complexes we are interested in (certainly the only ones you will be expected to work with in this course) adopt an octahedral geometry. It is naïve to throw the raw atomic orbtials (remember they all have the same energy) into a molecular bonding picture. Rather, it is instructive to see where exactly the lobes on the 5 sub d-orbitals lie. In the slide, you can see representations of these orbitals. Note that three (d xy , d yz , and d xz ) have lobes that point in between the axes , while two orbitals (d x 2 - y 2 and d z 2 ) will have lobes pointing on the axes. Metal Ion Charge You will need to determine the number of electrons in the highest level d-orbital in order to apply CFT. In order to do this: 1. Write the atomic configuration for the neutral metal ion, taking the exceptions into account. 2. From the charge, determine how many electrons must be removed from the configuration in number 1. 3. If the highest energy d-orbital is labeled n d, then you will want to remove the ( n + 1)s electrons first.
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