Problem+Solving

Problem+Solving - -When subgoals are blocked, different...

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Problem                        Solving
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Thinking  as analogs and models (Analogic)      …. . as a search of semantic memory (Symbolic)         …. . as an effort after meaning (Schema Theory)        ….. as a search for a solution path (Means-end-analysis)    …. . as restructuring problems  (Gestalt)    …. . as influenced by experience (Expert vs. Novice)    …. . as hypothesis testing (Inductive reasoning)    …. .  as logically drawing conclusions (Deductive reasoning)
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Solving Problems Organization in Problem Solving A well-defined problem has both an Initial State and a Goal State with Clear Methods for passing from initial to goal states An  ill-defined problem  often lacks a clear- cut goal or means to achieve a goal state.
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Means-Ends Analysis -The initial goal is often replaced by a hierarchy of subgoals
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Means-Ends Analysis
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Unformatted text preview: -When subgoals are blocked, different paths to a solution may be tried in a trial-and-error fashion. Advantages of a Means-Ends Analysis- Automaticity of subroutines saves resources- Methodical and efficient solutions- Hypothesis testing Potential problems with a means-ends analysis : Automaticity: Well-practiced actions may be difficult to stop (Stroop effect) Mental Set: May not become aware of new, improved solutions when they become available. Functional Fixedness: Inability to see unique, creative uses for objects or ideas. Ineffective strategy for ill-defined problems Overcoming obstacles to problem solving Basic notion: Experts Resolve a problem into chunks which allow its easy solution Know a lot more than novices about a problem domain Can access their knowledge more rapidly than novices...
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This note was uploaded on 02/02/2009 for the course PSYC 68060 taught by Professor Berg during the Fall '06 term at UC Irvine.

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Problem+Solving - -When subgoals are blocked, different...

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