RETRIEVAL - Retrieval and Forgetting Models of memory...

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Retrieval and                            Forgetting
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Models of memory  assume that retrieval  occurs when a  memory trace  reaches a threshold  level of activation. As the number of  associative links to  the target increase,  the greater the  probability of  retrieval.  
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The idea that a memory trace must reach a certain level of  activation in order to be retrieved explains many phenomena.  Examples : The tip-of-the tongue effect may be due to partial activation. Deep-processing at the time of encoding will produce more  associative links than shallow processing, leading to a greater  probability of recall. - Context effects - Benefits of elaborative rehearsal   
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Brewer & Treyens’ office
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How many books were in the professor’s  office? One-third of subjects that waited  in the office for 30 minutes  recalled seeing books. No one reported seeing a skull.
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Negative Effects of Scripts and  Schemas Memory is affected by an individual’s  conceptual framework. Elements which fit the schema are  remembered (even though the were not  actually present).
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RETRIEVAL - Retrieval and Forgetting Models of memory...

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