PSYCHO-chap11 - Chapter 11 Motivation and work To...

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Chapter 11 – Motivation and work To psychologists, a motivation is a need or desire that energizes behaviour and directs it toward a goal. Motivation – a need or desire that energizes and directs behaviour. Motives arise from the interplay between nature (the physiological “push”) and nurture (the cognitive and cultural “pulls”). Motivational concepts There are 4 perspectives that help to understand motivated behaviours: instinct theory ( evolutionary perspective ) focuses on genetically predisposed behaviours; drive-reduction theory focuses on how our inner pushes and external pulls interact; arousal theory focuses on finding the right level of stimulation; hierarchy of needs (created by Abraham Maslow) describes how some of our needs take priority over others. Instincts and evolutionary psychology This theory was influenced by Darwin’s evolutionary theory. Instinct – a complex behaviour that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned. Human behaviour exhibits unlearned fixed patterns, including infants’ innate reflexes for rooting and sucking. Fails to explain to human behaviour, just names them. Although instinct theory failed to explain human motives (behaviours), the underlying assumption that genes predispose species-typical behaviour remains as strong as ever. Drives and incentives When the instinct theory of motivation collapsed, it was replace by the drive- reduction theory. Drive-reduction theory – the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates and organism to satisfy the need. (When physiological need increases, so does a psychological drive) The physiological aim of drive reduction is homeostasis. Homeostasis – a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation or any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level. NEED (ex: for food, water) DRIVE (hunger, thirst) DRIVE-REDUCING BEHAVIOURS (eating, drinking) We are pushed by our “need” to reduce drives, and we pulled by incentives. 1
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Incentives – a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviour. (Ex: aroma of good food makes us hungry) When there is both a need and an incentive, we feel strongly driven. Optimum arousal Some motivated behaviours actually increase arousal. Human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but to seek optimum levels of arousal. Having all our biological needs satisfied, we feel driven to experience stimulation and we hunger for information, (ex: climbing Mount Everest just “Because it is there"). Lacking stimulation, we feel bored and look for a way to increase arousal to some optimum level. But, with too much stimulation comes stress, and we then look for a way to decrease arousal.
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