Reactor phys 2 notes - NRE 4208 Notes By Prof...

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N N R R E E 4 4 2 2 0 0 8 8 N N o o t t e e s s By Prof G.E.Sjoden (rev 2d) Nuclear Reactor Physics II (4 credits) Typesetting contributions by T. Mock are gratefully acknowledged Distribution Authorized only for academic use to students affiliated with the Georgia Institute of Technology Nuclear & Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Program George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
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1 Lesson 1 Nuclear Fission Systems & Reactions
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2 Fission was discovered by Hahn & Strassman (Kaiser Wilhelm Institute) in 1939, where Barium and Krypton resulted from Uranium. The word “fission” was assigned to the splitting of the Uranium nucleus bombarded with slow neutrons… An American named William Arnold , visiting Otto Frisch to view a confirmatory experiment, recalled that “binary fission” was a biology term describing when one Bacterium divides into two Hence “nuclear fission” was born. (P.260-266 Rhodes, “Making of the A-bomb”) Main interest in the nuclear fission is directed at reactor design All involve reactor design: Power Production – Nuclear Power, H 1 1 generation Propulsion – Nuclear Ships & Submarines Space Travel – Nuclear Rocket Engines, Compact Nuclear Power Systems Many systems involve NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply Systems) requiring applications of thermodynamics, heat transfer and energy conversion to nuclear heating. 1. Development of LWR’s (Light Water Reactors) PWR’s - Pressure Water Reactors – water is maintained at ~ 150 bar (~2200psi) to maintain water in liquid phase. An independent loop generates steam. (Most power plants and subs operate with this type of reactor) BWR’s – Boiling Water Reactors – water is boiled in coolant channels in the reactor, directly to turbine. 2. Development of HWR (Heavy Water Reactors) PHWR - France CANDU – Heavy water moderated, heavy water cooled in a pressure tube design (D 2 O ice melts at 3.82 o C, boils at 101.42 o C). 3. Development of AGR’s – Advanced Gas Reactors, MPBR, Gen-IV, GNEP Designs… 4. Development of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) : Westinghouse IRIS, B&W mPower , …
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3 No matter what the design, a nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear fission energy is released in a controlled manner. The operation of a reactor relies on the fate of subatomic particles ( n 1 0 ) as they interact with nuclei in the reactor system. -This is the basis of “Reactor Physics” ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons. z Charge; number of protons, electrons A Mass Each nuclide therefore has a unique “ZAID” 6012 C 12 6 ZZAAA is carbon – 12 AMU (atomic mass unit) is , as of Jan 1 st , 1962, 1/12 of a carbon atom or, 27 10 661 . 1 - × kg = 1 amu. Isotopes are nuclides with the same z but different A Mass Defect & Binding Energy ( ( nucleus n p M M z A M z - - + = (Mass defect of nucleus) (1.1) in terms of nuclear masses Most measurement data is based on atomic mass data, so by adding and subtracting e M z ( ( nucleus e n p M M z M z A M z - - - + = (1.2a) ( 29 + - - +
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