CHAPTER4 - Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell I. The Cell Theory...

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Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell I. The Cell Theory - finalized in the mid-Nineteenth century A. Every organism is composed of one or more cells B. The cell is the smallest unit having the properties of life C. The continuity of life arises directly from the growth and division of single cells II. Prokaryotic cells versus Eukaryotic A. Prokaryotic cells 1. Lack a true membrane enclosed nucleus and other organelles 2. Found only in the Archaebacteria and Eubacteria B. Eukaryotic cells 1. Possess a true membrane enclosed nucleus and other organelles 2. Found in members of the four remaining Kingdoms III. Structures of the Eukaryotic cells A. Structures surrounding the cell 1. Cell or plasma membrane a. Structure - phospholipid bilayer composed of: 1. Hydrophilic heads 2. Hydrophobic tails b. Function 1. Regulates the passage of materials into and out of the cell 2. Selectively permeable 2. Cell wall a. Unique plant cell & algae cell feature (also found in bacteria - different composition) b. Structure - composed of cellulose c. Function - protects the cell and provides stiffening and support B. Cytoplasm - watery environment of the cell that surrounds the organelles C. Organelles in the cytoplasm 1. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) a. Membrane system of folded sacs and canals b. Connects the cell membrane to the membrane of the nucleus c. General function - intracellular (within) and extra cellular( outside) transport of materials d. Two types: 1. Rough endoplasmic reticulum a. Named because of the presence of ribosome's on the surface b. Function - site of the manufacture and transporting of proteins 2. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum a. Lacks ribosome's on the surface b. Function - site of steroid and lipid production and transport 2. Ribosome's a. Small granular structures composed of RNA and protein b. Found either free-floating or attached to ER c. Lack a membrane and are therefore found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
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Chapter 4 page 2 d. Consist of a small and large subunit, each of which will play a role in protein synthesis e. Function - site of protein synthesis
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CHAPTER4 - Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell I. The Cell Theory...

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