CHAPTER3 - Chapter 3 The Molecules of Life I Composition of...

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Chapter 3: The Molecules of Life I. Composition of living matter A. Water B. Mineral salts C. Organic compounds - contain the element carbon II. Types of organic compounds A. Carbohydrates - sugars 1. Composition - carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (typically in a 1:2:1 ratio) 2. Functions: a. Supply energy b. Store energy c. Provide structure 3. Types of carbohydrates a. Monosaccharides - simple sugars 1. Pentose sugars a. Contain five carbons B. Examples - ribose and deoxyribose - the sugars in the nucleic acids RNA and DNA 2. Hexose sugars a. Contain six carbons b. Examples: 1. Glucose (=dextrose) a. Blood sugar b. Most important and abundant sugar 2. Fructose a. Fruit sugar b. Has the same chemical formula as glucose, but their atoms are arranged differently (= isomer ) 3. Galactose - milk sugar b. Disaccharides 1. Formed when two monosaccharides covalently bond together 2. Examples: a. Sucrose 1. Table sugar 2. Glucose + Fructose b. Lactose 1. Milk sugar 2. Glucose + Galactose c. Maltose 1. Malt sugar 2. Glucose + Glucose
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Chapter 3 page 2 c. Polysaccharides - complex sugars 1. Composed of numerous monosaccharides 2. Examples: 1. Glycogen a. Animal energy storage unit b. The liver and muscles remove glucose from the blood and make it into glycogen c. When needed, the glycogen is broken down into glucose 2. Starch - plant energy storage unit, which acts the same as glycogen 3. Cellulose a. Structural material in plant cell walls b. Stiffens and supports the plant cells c. Humans are unable to digest cellulose thoroughly = fiber 4. Chitin - structural component of Arthropod (insects, crustaceans) exoskeletons B. Lipids 1. Composition - carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in different proportions
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