Chapter 16A - Chapter 16: Plants, Fungi, and the Move onto...

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Chapter 16: Plants, Fungi, and the Move onto Land I. Kingdom Fungi A. Heterotrophic, eukaryotic organisms 1. Saprophytic - along with bacteria, these organisms gain their nourishment by absorbing minerals through the cell wall 2. Parasitic 3. Symbiotic - organism lives in close associationship with an organism of another species B. Most are multicellular, with the exception of the yeast C. Possess cell walls made of chitin (some have cellulose) D. With the exception of the yeast, the body of the fungus is made of thread-like filaments known as hyphae 1. When all of the hyphae are interwoven, a mycelium is formed 2. Appearance of the hyphae is used to classify fungi: a. Nonseptated or Coenocytic 1. Elongated hyphae with numerous nuclei 2. Found in the lower fungi b. Septated 1. Hyphae are divided into compartments with one to a few nuclei per compartment 2. Found in the higher fungi E. Reproduction 1. Asexual a. Spores are produced in a structure known as a sporangium located at the top of a specialized hyphae known as a sporangiophore b. Fragmentation c. Budding 2. Sexual a. Usually involves two different mating types, + and - b. When these fuse, a gametangium is formed c. A zygote nuclei is formed and eventually a new sporangiophore arises with a sporangium II. Classification of Fungi A. Lower fungi - Division Zygomycota 1. Coenocytic hyphae 2. Best example is black bread mold a. Possess root-like hyphae known as rhizoids which anchor the mold to the surface b. Possess stem-like hyphae or stolons which travel horizontally across the bread surface c. On the sporangiophore, a sporangium containing up to 40,000 spores arises
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Chapter 16 page 2 B. Higher fungi - all possess septated hyphae 1. Division Ascomycota - Sac Fungi a. Largest group - 30,000 species b. Examples: 1. Yeast a. Used in making of bread, beer, and wine b. Only unicellular member of the kingdom c. Reproduce by budding 2. Plant diseases a. Ergot - causes ergot poisoning or St. Anthony’s Fire 1. Fungus which grows on grains, mostly rye 2. When the grain is eaten by humans, the fungus produces serious and often deadly complications 3. Found in this fungus is a compound known as lysergic acid which was the basis for the development of the hallucinogenic drug known as LSD b. Other plant disease - Chestnut Blight and Dutch Elm disease 3. Edible delicacies a. Morels b. Truffles 4. Common molds of food 2. Division Basidiomycetes - Club Fungi a. Examples: 1. Puffballs 2. Toadstools 3. Bracket or shelf fungi 4. Smuts and rusts - parasites of grain b. Best known example is the mushroom 1. Body composed of: a. Stalk b. Cap with gills on the underside (where spores are produced) 2. 10,000 different species 3. Those purchased commercially should be edible 4. Wild mushrooms may or may not be edible 5. Majority of poisonings occur in three groups: a. Mycologists - people who study fungi b. People from other countries living in large urban areas c. People seeking hallucinogenic mushrooms
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course BIO 1408 taught by Professor Beechinor during the Spring '08 term at Alamo Colleges.

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Chapter 16A - Chapter 16: Plants, Fungi, and the Move onto...

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