GENERAL CHEMISTRY 1 FIRST QUARTER Module 6 Studying L.P.G. Linking gas effusion rates and molar mass Plus solving Gas stoichiometry Most Essential Learning Competency: 1. Apply the principles of stoichiometry to determine the amounts (volume, number of moles, or mass) of gaseous reactants and products (STEM_GC11GSIi-j-48) 2. Relate the rate of gas effusion with molar mass (STEM_GC11KMTIj-50)11

Before you engage yourself in studying this module, I want you to take note of the following: •While reading the contents refer to the figures and tables used. It will enhance your understanding of certain concepts about the lessons. •Some terms found in Brief Introduction are clearly defined in Remember section of this module. •Follow the directions indicated in the activities. •Usage of calculators and the periodic table are allowed. (If you don’t have a hard copy of the periodic table, you may refer to this link: https://sciencenotes.org/printable-periodic-table/) •Solve the given problems completely, include units and their cancellations. •Round off all final answers to the correct number of significant figures. Upon completion of this module, you will understand the relationship of percent composition and chemical formula, also the quantitative relationship of reactants and products in a chemical reaction. Specifically, this module will help you to: ✓use volume ratios from a balanced chemical equation to find the volume of the gases; ✓solve gas stoichiometry problems at STP and non-STP conditions; ✓determine the relationship between the rate of gas effusion and molecular mass of gas; and ✓useGraham’s law to calculate theeffusion rates of two gases based on their molar masses. Expectations To the Learners 1

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Figure 2. Gas Stoichiometry using volume ratio. 3. It is a theoretical gas that satisfies the assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory in terms of pressure, temperature, volume, and amount. 4. It is a universal value used to quantify the relationship between the properties of a gas and found in ideal gas equation. Gas Stoichiometry In the previous module, you used relationships between amounts (in moles) and masses (in grams) of reactants and products to solve stoichiometry problems. In dealing with gases, you have to consider the gas laws to determine the amount (moles,n), volume (V), or mass (m) to solve such problems. Calculations are done in the same manner as discussed in previous lessons. However, in the case of gaseous problems, you need to consider the following: 1.Gas Stoichiometric Problems Using Volume Ratio When a gas reacts to produce another gas, you can useGay-Lussac’s law of combining gas volumesto find the volumes of the gases. As you have learned in the previous module, the coefficients in a balanced equation show the relationships among the number of moles of all reactants and products. Aside from number of moles, these coefficients specify also thevolume ratiosfor gaseous reactants and products as illustrated in figure 1.Thus, you can also use the volume ratio as conversion factors in gas stoichiometry problems as shown in figure 2. 2.Gas Stoichiometric Problems at STP conditions As you have learned inAvogadro’s law, one mole of any gas atstandard temperature and pressure(0°C and 1 atm) occupies a volume of 22.4 L (standard molar volume). That will be your basis for the conversion factor. Brief Introduction Apply Apply Figure 1. Volume ratio. Source: : Manualzz. n.d. Chapter 13.3. Gas Stoichiometry. https://manualzz.com/doc/11450236/gases-13.1-big-idea Start with abalancedequation.Construct volume ratiofrom stoichiometriccoefficients.Use the volume ratio to calculate volume of unknown. Figure 3. Molar volume: Conversion factors at STP conditions.3

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