Validity and Soundness

Validity and Soundness - Examples: Valid argument with...

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Handout on Arguments Argument = df. Any series of propositions, one of which is offered as the claim to be supported and is called the conclusion, the rest of which are offered in support of the conclusion and are called the premises. Two ways of evaluating arguments: Validity : An argument is valid if and only if it is one in which if its premises are true, then its conclusion must be true <or> it is one in which it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false. Determining validity is the way in which we evaluate the connection between the truth of the premises and the truth of the conclusion. Soundness : An argument is sound if and only if it (a) is valid and (b) has all true premises. Determining soundness is the way in which we evaluate the truth of the premises. A sound argument is the best sort of argument possible.
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Unformatted text preview: Examples: Valid argument with false premises and a false conclusion 1. If pigs can fly, then Berkeley is an alligator. 2. Pigs can fly. 3. Therefore, Berkeley is an alligator. Valid argument with all false premises and a true conclusion 1. Justice is what the strong desire. 2. The strong desire to distribute rewards according to merit and penalties according to blame. 3. Therefore, justice is distributing rewards according to merit and penalties according to blame. Invalid Argument with true premises and a true conclusion 1. If Berkeley is a human, then Berkeley is a mammal. 2. Berkeley is a mammal. 3. Therefore, Berkeley is a human being. Sound Argument (valid argument with true premises) 1. If Berkeley is a human, then he is a mammal. 2. Berkeley is a human. 3. Therefore, Berkeley is a mammal. 1...
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course PHI 006 taught by Professor Sharpe during the Spring '08 term at Westmont.

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