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Philosophy Study Guide 2

Philosophy Study Guide 2 - 1 A priori knowledge logic...

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1. A priori knowledge- logic, anything not derived from the senses 2. A posteriori knowledge- all knowledge gained though the senses 3. Notion of certainty and reason to doubt 4. Dream hypothesis- I am not certain that I am dreaming right now, if I am not certain if I am asleep or awake, I can not be certain that x exists 5. Evil Genius- God is an evil genius that deceives us, and just gives us false reason to believe something. The Evil genius cannot manipulate our minds. 6. Clear and distinct idea- complete knowledge of the concept of the idea 7. Perception- anything derived through our senses and memory functions 8. Impression- something that has more force and vivacity then an idea. The action of burning your hand on the stove 9. Idea- the process of remembering the pain felt when burning the hand on stove. Less intense version of a impression 10. Copy thesis- All of our ideas, concepts, beliefs; content of thought is ultimately derived from sense impressions. All of our ideas are copies, bad copies of our impressions. 11. Relations of ideas 12. Matters of fact- arrived at from casual inference, causes problems in our belief structure 13. Unobserved matters of fact- ideas that are derived from experience, most common of our beliefs, cannot be a priori knowledge. Because the things that we know on the basis of concepts are all justified by having a clear understanding and how they are related.
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14. Inductive inference- making an inference on another belief. A F’s are G’s, next F will be a G 15. Uniformity principle- the future will be conformable to the past. The future will be like the past. This is what gives us reason to move from the premise, to the conclusion. 16. Clifford’s rule of belief- we have a duty or an obligation to make sure we have good evidence for our belief. It is morally wrong to hold a false belief. 17. Evidentialism- the view that belief in God is rational only if one has sufficient reason for the existence of God. 18. Sufficient evidence- has sufficient evidence for a belief B only if S can (inductively or deductively) infer B from other of S’s rational beliefs.
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