Anatomy and Physiology Notes EXAM 2 - Anatomy and...

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Anatomy and Physiology Notes 2Chapter 6: BONE TISSUESkeletonsEndoskeleton:lies within the soft tissues of the bodyAxial Skeleton:bones of head, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum (central AXIS of the body)Appendicular Skeleton:bones of the extremities and pectoral/pelvic girdlesBasic Functions of the SkeletonSupport:framework of the body, support to soft tissue and attachment sitesProtection:brain protected by cranial cavity, spinal cord by vertebral canal, thoracic organs by ribcage, and reproductive organs by the pelvisMovement:bones act as biomechanical levers on which muscles act to produce motionMineral Reservoir:Calcium, Phosphate, Magnesium; electrolyte balanceBlood Cell Formation:(aka hemopeiosis) red marrow within some bones produces blood cellsTriglyceride Storage:yellow blood marrow in bones (= fat)Chemical Composition of BonesBone is a type of Connective Tissue (living cells + extracellular matrix); has organica dn inorganiccomponentsOrganic Components:GAGs and collagen fibers resist stretching and provide tensile strength(steel rods)= flexibility and support; cells:oOsteoblasts:build/produce bone;Osteocytes:mature cells;Osteoclasts:break down boneInorganic Compounds:mineral salts (Ca2PO4, Ca (OH)2) provides compressive strength (cement)= strengthClassification of Bone: ShapeLong Bones:long axis, most of the bones that make up upper/lower extremities, provide leversfor movement, have structurally distinct regions (see “Structure of Bone”)Short Bones:bones that do not have a long axis; found in wrist and ankle bones (carpal/tarsal)Flat Bones:consists of two plates of compact bone separated by spongy bones (“diploe”) thatbridges the red bone marrow cavity; found in ribs, sternum, bones of craniumIrregular Bones:bones of various shapes found in skull, vertebrae, and pelvisSutural Bones:between the flat bones of the skullSesamoid Bones:develop inside the tendon; ex: knee caps… not born with them but developwhen walking beginsStructure of Bones (macroscopic anatomy)Diaphysis:central part/shaft covered by thick collar of compact boneMedullary cavity:(aka marrow cavity) runs through the center of the diaphysis and contains thefatEpiphyses:at both proximal and distal ends of bone; have a spongy interior containing red bonemarrow. Covered by hyaline cartilage (aka articular cartilage)—cartilage protects boneEpiphyseal Line:(aka metaphysis) located between the diaphysis and epiphysis; used to be anepiphyseal plate (aka growth plate_Periosteum:covering of thebone… 2 layers:oFibrous:outer layer of dense irregular connective tissueoOsteogenic:inner layer of osteoblasts, osteocytes
Sharpey’s Fibers:attach periosteum to the boneEndosteum:membrane lining marrow cavity; contains osteoblasts and osteocytesNutrient Foramen:whole where nutrient artery goes through the bone to provide nutrients

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Term
Spring
Professor
Kopeny
Tags
Bone Remodeling, synovial cavity

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