BIOL205-2005-Final

BIOL205-2005-Final - Final Examination Biology of Organisms...

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Unformatted text preview: Final Examination Biology of Organisms BIOL 205 p. l of 9 Faculty of Science FINAL EXAMINATION BIOLOGY 205 BIOLOGY OF ORGANISMS Examiner: Professor Donald L. Kramer Tuesday, April 26, 2005 Associate Examiner: Professor Raj Dhindsa 14:00 ~ 17:00 Instructions: 0 This examination comprises 9 pages, including the cover page 0 You are to answer 4 of the 5 questions in Part A and 4 of the 5 questions in Part B All answers must be written in the examination books provided Answer each question on a separate page Write your name on the exam sheet and return it with your exam. Each question is worth 20 points out of a total of 160; the tentative number of points for each part of each question is shown Calculators are permitted Dictionaries (except translation dictionaries) are not permitted Name Student Number Final Examination Biology of Organisms BIOL 205 p. 2 of 9 Part A. Answer any 4 of the following 5 questions (1 m 5). Question 1. Examine the following figure. Three important parts of a structure are identified. Giving examples of specific characteristics, actions, products and functions wherever applicable, answer the following: a) (2 points) What type of seed is shown in the figure? b) (6 points) What are the specific roles of the embryo during germination? c) (6 points) What are the specific roles of the aleurone layer during germination? d) (6 points) What are the specific roles of the endosperm during germination? Aleurone layer Embryo Endosperm Question 2. a) (10 points) What is the role of nerve tissue in regeneration of lost parts vertebrate animal? b) (10 points) What is the role of hormones in regeneration of missing parts in plants? Question 3. In many plants, induction of flowering occurs in response to relative lengths of day and night in a 24-hour cycle. Answer the following: a) (5 points) You have many vegetative seedlings of a plant. Briefly describe the key elements of a simple experiment you would conduct to determine if this plant is or is not a long-day plant. b) (5 points) Give clear and concise definition of a short—day plant. 0) (5 points) Giving examples of specific treatments, how would you determine which part of the inductive photoperiod — day or night — is crucial in induction of flowering? d) (5 points) It has been suggested that photoperiodie induction of flowering involves a transmissible hormone. Describe one experiment the results of which support this suggestion. Final Examination Biology of Organisms BIOL 205 p. 3 of 9 Question 4. Programmed cell death (PCD) is an essential part of normal foot development in animals. Answer the following: a) (2 points) What is PCD? b) (2 points) Where does PCD take place during foot development? c) (2 points). Which of the three primary germinal layers plays a determining role in PCD? d) (8 points) What specific experiments would you do to demonstrate the role of the particular layer identified in part c? e) (6 points) Describe two examples of PCD during normal development of the plant body. Question 5. Give brief descriptions (no more than 5 sentences) of the following: a) (4 points) Sodium/proton antiports b) (4 points) Dehydrins c) (4 points) Role of membrane fatty acid saturation in membrane fluidity d) (4 points) Biolistic method of introducing foreign genes into cells or tissues e) (4 points) Position of nucleus as a means to generate polarity. Final Examination Biology of Organisms BIOL 205 p. 4 of 9 Part B. Answer any 4 of the following 5 questions (6 — 10). 6. Gut diagram adapted from Stevens & Hume by IE. Lambert (1998) Evolutionary Anthropology. Photo by Peter Huysman from wwwactivebirdingcom The black and white colobus monkey, Colobus guereza, is an African primate specialized for leaf-eating. It spends much of its time eating leaves and is a foregut fermenter. Above is a diagrammatic illustration of its gastrointestinal tract. 3. (10 points) Identify the letter(s) corresponding to the following functions. Letters can be used more than once or not at all. If no letter applies, say so. i. primary site of fermentation ii. two important sites ofdigestion iii. primary site of absorption of amino acids iv. primary site of absorption of water and ions v. site that would be relatively much larger in a caecal fermeneter vi. site that would be relatively much larger in a hind gut fermenter vii. site that could be appropriately modeled as a batch reactor viii. site that could be appropriately modeled as a continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor ix. site that could be appropriately modeled as a plug flow reactor x. hepatic portal system (continued on next page...) Final Examination Biology of Organisms BIOL 205 p. 5 of 9 b. (5 points) What is digestive efficiency? Would you expect a fermenter or non- fermeter species to have higher digestive efficiency for energy when eating a diet of leaves? Briefly justify your answer. 0. (5 points) Why is energy storage important for animals? Name 2 major categories of molecules that animals use to store energy for periods of hours or days. Name two distinct reasons why energy storage produces a metabolic cost. The above figure represents the humerus, radius and ulna bones and the triceps muscle of the forelimbs of two rodent species (A and B). On the left, wide grey arrows show possible directions of force vectors. On the right, thin black arrows point to specific locations. 3. (4 points) On the figure on the right, identify the letter nearest the arrow that points to: i. A muscle ii. A tendon iii. A ligament iv. Central area of a bone shaft b. (3 points) 0n the figure on the right, considering the forelimb as a lever, identify the letter or letters nearest the arrows that identify the: i. Position of a pivot ii. Two ends of the in-lever iii. Two ends of the out-lever (continued on next page...) Final Examination Biology of Organisms BIOL 205 p. 6 of 9 c. (2 points) On the figure on the lefi, identify the number nearest the arrow that represents the direction of: i. the iii—force resulting from contraction of the triceps ii. the out-force resulting from contraction of the triceps d. (7 points) Which of the rodents (Species A or B) is built for greater running speed and which is built for greater strength? Justify your answer using the theory of levers as it applies to both force and velocity. e. (4 points) Name two other structural changes, independent of the theory of levers, that adapt a mammal for high-speed running and briefly justify your answers. ti: :‘n: SHIIH-“l M9 nah-5. It) . The thyroid gland in mammals and birds produces two iodine-containing hormones (T3 and T4) that are very important regulators of metabolic rate. Basal metabolic rate increases with the level of circulating thyroid hormones. The rate of secretion of T3 and T4 is increased by the anterior pituitary hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Secretion of TSH is stimulated by thyrotropin—releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus. Secretion of TSH is inhibited by increased levels of T3 and T4 reaching the pituitary. a. (5 points) In the figure above, identify the numbers that correspond to: i. The thyroid gland ii. The pituitary gland iii. The hypothalamus iv. The adrenal glands v. The ovaries (continued on next page...) Final Examination Biology of Organisms BlOL 205 p. 7of9 b. (4 points). This question asks you to identify they means by which the hormone signals are transmitted. i. How does TRH reaches the anterior pituitary, assuming that it is similar to the releasing hormones for gonadotropins? ii. How does TSH reach the thyroid? iii. How do T3 and T4 reach the anterior pituitary? iv. Does oxytoein reach the posterior pituitary by the same pathway as TRH reaches the anterior pituitary? Briefly justify your answer. 0. (1 point) Does the regulation of thyroid hormone secretiOn represent an example of positive or negative feedback? Briefly justify your answer. d. (1 point) Does the regulation of thyroid hormone secretion represent an example of short-loop feedback, long-loop feedback or open~loop? Briefly justify your answer. 6. (2 points) In some mountainous areas far from the sea, iodine is sometimes lacking in the diet, preventing the production of sufficient T3 and T4 and the thyroid gland becomes swollen in a condition known as goiter. How would you expect TSH concentrations in people or animals with goiter to compare to people with a normal iodine intake? Briefly justify your answer. f. (7 points) Briefly describe the series of experiments that a classical endocrinologist would have used to test whether the thyroid is an endocrine gland. What molecule would be measured in determining the effects of these experimental treatments? xzodl‘ 'v' w -; hr: - H'-l- ’— l .- tl ‘v- Figure l and 2 above are from JH. Selong et al. (2001). Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 130: 1026- 1037. (continued on next page...) Final Examination Biology of Organisms BIOL 205 p. 8 of 9 The figure to the left shows temperature tolerance polygons for bullhead, churn salmon and Antarctic rock perch (Pagorhenia) from Cossins & Bowler “Um” Fig. 6.7, as reprinted in the BIOL 205 course pack. 41:) 'r‘O [nuclear lemnl «emrzerulure PC; in A‘aqomen u: Ie ’ 2r.- so 4c futilf’flhbfl remDevMure (“CI The bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) is a western North American species of freshwater fish related to the brook trout. It is considered to be a threatened species from a conservation perspective, in part because of increasing temperatures in its habitat due to global warming, decreased precipitation and the removal of river water for irrigation. However, its temperature tolerance had never been carefully studied. Researchers in Montana U.S.A. examined the temperature tolerance of young bull trout reared at 8 C by raising the temperatures of the tanks in which they were living up to 12 different temperatures (10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, and 28 C) in addition to a group kept at 8 C. Temperatures were raised very slowly (1 degree per day). Fish were then held at the test temperature for 60 days or until they died. Figure 1 above shows the number of days until 50% of the fish died at temperatures from 21 e 26 C. The line shows the trend based on 3 tanks at each temperature. From 8 — 18, at least 98% of the fish survived for the full 60 days, so they considered that temperature had no effect on survival. At 20 C, 79% of the fish survived so they could not determine a value for 50% survival in 60 days. Figure 2 above shows the average growth rate of the surviving fish during the experiment between 8 and 20 C. The line shows the trend for 3 tanks per temperature. a. (3 points) How is the upper incipient lethal temperature of plants and ectothermic animals normally affected by exposure to higher non-lethal temperatures (increase, decrease or no change)? What is the term used by animal physiologists to describe this effect when it takes place under controlled lab conditions? What is the term when it takes place under field conditions? b. (4 points) If the researchers had raised the temperature of the tanks from 8 C to the test temperatures much more quickly (1 degree per half hour instead of 1 degree per day), would the survival times in Figure 1 be the same, higher or lower for each temperature? Briefly explain your answer. c. (4 points) What is the highest temperature that bullhead, chum salmon and Antarctic rock perch can survive? Compare these values to the highest temperature that bull trout can survive. Is the bull trout a eurytherm or a stenotherm or an extreme stenotherm? Briefly justify your answer. (continued on next page...) Final Examination Biology of Organisms BIOL 205 p. 9 of 9 d. (3 points) Above the highest temperature that an ectotherm can survive, how is survival time normally affected by increasing temperature (increase, decrease or no change)? Does the bull trout show the expected pattern? e. (3 points) Within the temperature range that a species can survive, what is the expected effect of temperature on physiological performance? Does growth rate in the bull trout correspond to the expected pattern? f. (3 points) Based on the data shown, what would you expect would be the preferred temperature for young bull trout? Briefly justify your answer. 10. a. (4 points). Explain why a crab in an algae-filled tide pool could experience extreme variation in partial tension of dissolved oxygen over a 24-hour period. b. (4 points). Explain why a bottom-living fish in a small pond in Quebec might experience variation in hypoxic stress over a one-year period. c. (4 points). Name and briefly explain one tolerance mechanism that could allow a turtle hibernating at the bottom of a pond to survive hypoxic stress. (1. (4 points) Explain why wet or submerged soil is a potentially stressfiil habitat for plants. e. (4 points) Name and briefly explain 2 structural adaptations that allow plants to resist hypoxic stress in flooded soil. ...
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BIOL205-2005-Final - Final Examination Biology of Organisms...

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