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Part 1 – pages 366 - 380Chapter 10: IntelligenceIntelligence:the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment.INTELLIGENCE IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE2 scientists played seminal roles in study and measurement of mental skillsContributions of Sir Francis Galton and Alfred Binet set stage for later attempts to measure intelligence and discover its causesSir Francis Galton: Quantifying Mental AbilityCousin of Charles Darwin strongly influenced by Theory of EvolutionBook, Hereditary Genius, Galton showed through study of family trees that eminence andgenius seemed to occur within certain familiesoEminent people had ‘inherited mental constitutions’ that made them more fit for thinking that their less successful counterpartsoDismissed fact that the more successful people he studied almost invariably camefrom privileged environmentsAttempted to demonstrate biological basis for eminence by showing that people who weremore socially and occupationally successful would also perform better on variety of laboratory tasks thought to measure ‘efficiency on the nervous system.’Developed measure on reaction speed, hand strength and sensory acuityoMeasured size of people’s skulls, believing that skull size reflected brain volume intelligenceGalton’s approach to mental skills disfavoured because measures of nervous-system efficiency proved unrelated to socially relevant measures of mental ability, such as academic and occupational successAlfred Binet’s Mental TestsModern intelligence-testing movement began in 20thcenturyoStarted by Binet as he was interested in solving practical problem rather than supporting a theoryoNoticed that certain children were unable to benefit from normal public school – educators wanted an objective way to identify these children as early as possible so that some form of special education could be arrangedBinet made 2 assumptions about intelligence:1.Mental abilities develop with age2.Rate at which people gain mental competence (e.g. a child that is less competent at age 5 should also be lagging at age 10)Binet tests to measure mental skills:
1.Asked experiences teachers what sorts of problems children could solve at age 3,4,5, etc.2.Used their answers to develop standardized interview in which adult examiner posed series of questions to child to determine whether child was performing at correct mental level for his/her age3.Result of testing was score called, mental ageoExample: if an 8-year old could solve problems at level of average 10-year old, the child would be said to have mental age of 10Concept of mental age further developed by William Stern to provide relative score (common yardstick of intellectual attainment) for people of different chronological agesoDeveloped intelligence quotient (IQ): ratio of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100 IQ = (mental age/chronological age) x 100oExample: