Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry - 16.1 16. Organic Chemistry (tutorial...

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16.1 16. Organic Chemistry (tutorial notes and text Ch 22) In Chem 020, we briefly survey some of the common organic reactions. Those taking Chem 213 or Chem 273 will study these reactions in detail, such as how they occur, not simply what happens. A. Introduction Organic compounds are those that contain carbon and only a few other elements, commonly H, O, and N. Over 10 million organic compounds are known, and the possible total number is virtually infinite. For this reason, the organic chemistry is considered to be the study of the chemistry of carbon compounds. Some features of organic compounds o Molecular rather than ionic o Each carbon atom always forms four covalent bonds o Carbons can be bonded to each other, or to other non- metal atoms, and bonds are usually very strong. Some examples: C C 347 kJ/mol C=C 611 kJ/mol C O 351 kJ/mol C=O 745 kJ/mol C H 414 kJ/mol N N 159 kJ/mol
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16.2 When carbon has a full octet, its hybridization can be sp , sp 2 , or sp 3 , depending on the number of multiple bonds. Example Structure Hybrid Shape CH 4 sp 3 tetrahedral C 2 H 4 sp 2 trigonal planar CO 2 sp linear C 2 H 2 sp linear Organic compounds feature isomerism , which is divided into two categories, structural isomerism and stereoisomerism. o Two distinct and different compounds can have the same molecular formula (more details later), e.g. C 5 H 12 CH 3 2 2 2 3 3 CHCH 2 3 3 3 CCH 3 3 3
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16.3 Most organic compounds fall into a small number of groups. Within each group, all compounds have similar chemical and physical properties. So, we can learn the properties of the groups without discussing the individual compounds. These groups, or homologous series , are classified two ways. 1. Skeletal Classification All organic compounds consist of a skeletal backbone of carbon atoms linked together in chains or rings. The skeleton is quite stable remains unchanged through most reactions. The remaining valencies are fulfilled by bonding with H. Compounds containing only C and H are called hydrocarbons, and they regarded as parent structures . Hydrocarbons Aliphatic Aromatic Acyclic Cyclic Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes 2. Functional Group Classification Other compounds can be made from the parent structures by replacing one or more H atoms with other atoms or groups of atoms. These other atoms determine the characteristic reactions, or functionality, of the compounds.
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16.4 Name General formula Characteristic reaction Example alkane R 3 C H C n H 2n+2 combustion CH 3 CH 2 CHCH 3 CH 3 alkene R 2 C=CR 2 C n H 2n addition alkyne RC CR C n H 2n-2 addition HC CCH(CH 3 ) 2 aromatic compounds contain substitution alcohol R OH oxidation OH ether R O R combustion CH 3 CH 2 OCH 3 amine R NH 2 basicity NH 2 aldehyde CH O R oxidation H O ketone CR O R reduction CH 3 CCH 3 O carboxylic acid COH O R acidity CH 3 COH O ester COR O R hydrolysis CH 3 CH 2 COCH 3 O amide CNR 2 O R hydrolysis CH 3 CNHCH 3 O In all functional groups listed above, R = any chain of carbon atoms, or sometimes, an H atom, if H does not result in a different functional group.
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16.5
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course CHEM 020 taught by Professor Griffith during the Fall '07 term at UWO.

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Organic Chemistry - 16.1 16. Organic Chemistry (tutorial...

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