History 578 Lecture # 6

History 578 Lecture # 6 - History 578 Lecture # 6 I....

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History 578 Lecture # 6 I. Brooklyn Bridge A. Begun in 1869 by John Roebling who died before it was completed B. Brooklyn bridge opened May 1883: symbol of urban landscape, and hailed one of the wonders of the world C. Took 14 years to complete and cost the lives of 20 men D. 300 workers who worked around the clock in 3 shifts a day for $2 a day E. To sink the foundation into the riverbed, workers tunneled down through the mud and debris in reinforced boxes called caissons: open at the bottom and pressurized to keep the water from flowing in. F. Caused the Bends G. Washington Roebling took over as chief engineer after his father, worked 12-14 hours a day, six days a week. H. He got the bends and became an invalid, directing the completion of the building from his hospital room, with a telescope II. The Rise of the City A. In 1870 26% (9,900,000) people lived in towns and cities with a population of 2,500 or more. B. Early def of urban: more than 2,500 C. By 1930 the number had risen to 69,000,000 people, or 56% of the population D. The census of 1920 officially determined that America was no longer a rural society. E. 1850 20 biggest cities equal 2 million F. 1910 fifty cities over 100,000 G. 1900 N.Y. had 3 million, Chicago, and Phil over a million, St. Louis, Boston, Baltimore over 500.,000 H. Why? 1. Transportation. Rail transport key to northern win in Civil War 2. Rise of steel, oil, electricity, I. First skyscraper 1885 in Chicago – 10 stories, steel framed. In 1913 Woolworth building was 58 stories high III. Immigration: A. Old Immigrants – Before 1880. Skilled laborers immigrants from N. and West Europe: Germans, Irish, English, and Scandanavians about 85% of immigrants B. New Immigrants: South and Eastern Europe: Italians, Poles, Russions, Hungarians, Armenians –
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History 578 Lecture # 6 - History 578 Lecture # 6 I....

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