Leisure Midterm Review

Leisure Midterm Review - Test Review Organization/Structure...

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Test Review Organization/Structure o Provide methods for problem solving Where to go to solve problems o Provides a chain of command o Should be linked to goals and objectives 4 Characteristics of Organizations o Goal seeking o Assignment of tasks o Positions of authority o Interlinked with other contingency Mechanistic Organization o Stable environment o Constant problems Allows use of standard responses or answers to problems o Specific work task assignment of employees Associate with expertise knowledge Higher on chain of command, the higher level of knowledge o Specific Responsibilities o Solutions come from “higher ups” o Top down communication o Control from top down Organic Organizations o Works well with rapid change Unpredictable changes Flexibility o Task assignments are flexible o Solutions come from group work o Lateral communication o Prestige is attached to expertise Bureaucratic Model o Assumes authority comes from top down throughout organizations o Distinct job description Aids in structuring organizational hierarchy o Unity of command o Distinct span of control o Assigned authority and responsibility Bureaucratic profit-oriented structure o Sole proprietorship Single owner o Partnership Two or more individual owners
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o Corporation Legal entity Same rights and responsibilities as sole proprietorship and/or partnership Bureaucratic non-profit oriented structure o Independent boards Autonomous Develop policy Legal authority to Enforce policy Levy taxes Elected or appointed Fund-raising responsibilities o Semi-Independent boards Appointed a volunteer Determines policy Legal authority rests with another group Enforces policy Determines tax, etc… Other authority Control or approves all activities o Advisory boards Allows involvement of private citizens Issues recommendations to legal authority No formal authority Systems Approach to Organization & Structure o Based on interrelationships amongst various systems in an organization. Macro Scale Allows to view all systems or a smaller system as part of the whole. Micro Scale Allows for analysis or monitoring of a specific system Macrosystem o Relies on Microsystems to achieve organization goals/objectives. Modular Organization o Smaller systems with specific tasks o Make up organization as a whole Systems Approach to Organization & Structure Modular organization o Requires Decentralization of work or task of organization Assignment of work specialization to modular/system Authority is provided within modular system Centralization & Decentralization
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o Centralization All parts of organization located in 1 central location o
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