History of Evolutionary Thought

History of Evolutionary Thought - History of Evolutionary...

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Principal individuals in the history of evolutionary thought: - Karl von Linné aka Carolus Linnaeus -Principle of the Fixity of Species -All species were created by God, and species were unchangeable. - Jean Baptiste Lamarck -Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics (Theory of Use and Disuse) -Tenets of Theory: -Organisms have "needs" to survive; -"Needs" are met by the modification of organs ; -Continued use of organs leads to an increase in the functional capacity of the organs; lack of use of organs leads to their degeneration or loss; -The changes that occur to the organs in one's lifetime become inheritable and can be passed on to one's offspring. - George Cuvier -Theory of Catastrophism -In the past, there have been a series of geological and climatological cataclysmic events which caused extinction of animals in the affected regions. When the cataclysm subsided, species from neighboring unaffected areas migrated into the area affected by the cataclysm. The immigrant species were similar, but not identical, to those that went extinct. - Charles Lyell -Theory of Uniformitarianism -Forces existing today that shape the earth are the same as those that acted in the past. - Thomas Malthus -Principle of Population - Charles Darwin -Observations of natural history on the Galapagos Islands - 1859 -publication of On the Origin of Species -Tenets of Thesis of Natural Selection -Reproductive potential of a population is high, but actual population size remains stable. -Resources are in limited supply; individuals within a population compete for these resources. -Biological variation is a regular, normal aspect of a population. -Any hereditary variation that allows an organism a slight advantage in competition for resources will be perpetuated. Those organisms with the favorable traits will preferentially survive and produce offspring. Across generations, there will be an increase in frequency of organisms within the favorable traits. - Alfred Russell Wallace -had the idea of changeable species but did not use the term "natural selection" -Gregor Mendel - 1866 - Published the results of experiment -Seed Texture: Round x Wrinkled 1st generation: 100% Round (Round x Round) 2nd generation: 75% Round (Round x Round), 25% Wrinkled (Wrinkled x Wrinkled) 3rd generation: 100% Round, 75% Round, 25% Wrinkled, 100% Wrinkled -Principle of Segregation - Genes occur in pairs in an individual. In the production of sex cells, the pair is separated. Each sex cell contains one of the pair of genes. R=Round, w=Wrinkled
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course ANTH 1001 taught by Professor Tague during the Spring '07 term at LSU.

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History of Evolutionary Thought - History of Evolutionary...

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