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plsc final notes

plsc final notes - Why study Avian Biology The function...

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Why study Avian Biology? The function, features of the anatomical and physiological systems of the fowl are of importance in their relationships to the production and marketing of poultry. Avian genealogy: Originally all birds probably had the ability to fly (some have lost the ability to fly like: ratites, ostrich, emu, rhea, cassowary, kiwi) Various bird species belong to: Kingdom: animalia Class: aves Order: Galiformes (chickens turkey, guinea fowl, and pheasants-large bodied birds of terrestrial habit, short wings, short beaks) Anseiforms-ducks, geese Avian species are warm blooded Vertebrae Four chambered hearts Possess feathers May be bipeds but they possess lots of different toe numbers, sizes, and shapes. Genus and species names: Chicken: Gallus domesticus Turkey: Meleagus gallapauo Duck: Anas platyrhynchos Goose: Anser anser High body temperature (101-107F) High resting pulse rate (300 beats per minute) High resting respiration rate (14-22 breaths/minute) High rate of food passage (2.5 minutes from mouth to vent) Fusion of certain bones (rigidity for flight) Adaptation of forelimbs into wings Integumentary System Definition: body covering (skin and feathers) Skin Thin (outer layer) Epidermis (feathers, beak, toenails, and scales) Dermis –inner layer- (comb, wattles, and earlobes) Chickens have a single sebaceous gland (preen gland) at the tail Various skin colors Colors result from different combinations of pigments (carotenoids and melanin) Common leg/shank colors are yellow, red, white, blue, green and black Common earlobe colors are red or white Feathers Functions: protection, insulation, essential for flight, serve as secondary sex characteristics. -Annual renewal of the feather coat (molt) constitutes a considerable physiological expense to the fowl -feathers are arranged in definite feather tracts across the body of the bird, these tracts are called pterylae -10 major pterylae tracts are shoulder, thigh, rump, breast, neck, abdomen, leg wing, back, head. -Feather color is a genetic trait and is of economic importance. -market type chickens and turkeys in the us are predominately white feathered. -coloration due to carotenoids (red and yellow) or melanin (brown)
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-feathers erupt from feather follicle -growing feathers have a blood supply -make up 4-9% of live weight depending on age and sex -front, bow, bar, secondary, primaries, primary coverts, wing shoulder Skeletal System -built for flight -light weight skeleton: pneumatic bones penetrated by extensions of air sacs, repiratory system -rigid skeleton: bones fused in certain areas -forelimbs modified: wings -built to accommodate lay of shelled eggs -marrow cavity filled with medullary bone (if not for medullary bone hens on low calcium diet could lose as much as 40% of the skeletal calcium after laying 6 eggs) -avian ribs are braced and hinged in the middle which aids in respiration especially during flight Major functions of the skeleton 1. muscle support 2. protection 3. formation of red blood cells 4. assistance in respiration and flight Muscular System Musceles:
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plsc final notes - Why study Avian Biology The function...

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