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Unformatted text preview: 1-26-06Incubation and Hatchery Management:I. Introduction-hatching eggs involves a Black Box Modelhatching (manufacturing process)Fertile Eggs ----Day-Old Chicks(input) (output)How do we hatch chicken eggs?-Natures Way=broody hens(clucks)-Mans Way=artificial setting hens (incubators)-importance of heat in hatching eggs, long knownEX:400B.C-Egyptians and 246 B.C-Chinese21 DAYS TO HATCH A CHICKEN EGG!(3 trimesters of 7 days)ovipostionrelease of a shelled eggOvulation---release of egg inside body--Today we hatch poultry eggs in a forced-draft incubator.Hatchery= Specialized Poultry Industry1. Serves as multiplier of improved breeding stock.2. Supplier of day old and started stocks3. Source of information on disease control, nutrition and management4. Supplier of vaccinations, medications and equipment5. Few cases, market outlet for eggs.Flockgroup of birdsAll In-All Outdo this b/c of disease containmentchickens get in the barn and stay there! Recent Trends in The Hatchery Industry:1. Fewer hatcheries2. larger hatcheries3. Shift from seasonal of year-around hatching4. Hatchery integration with other segments of production/marketing chain5. Shift from Midwest to SoutheastII.The Hatching EggQ. How do we measure success?Hatchability=% of total eggs set that hatch into saleable chicksQ. Whats a saleable chick?* Bright, alert, ambulatory (properly hardening)* No unhealed or scabby navels (improper T and RH)* No pasty vents (anus) (overheating, chilling, oxygen)* No scissor (crossed) beaks* No cut toes (hatchery accidents) or cripples* No blinded chicks* No red, ulcerated hocks or sores on top of beak (High and low RH-trouble escaping the shell)No other deformitiesDouble Yoke Eggs do not hatch!Slipsmissing a deformed chick and releasing him into the farmPiping MuscleMuscle on back of head to help break out of shell during hatchingFactors that Influence Hatchability:A. Pre Lay Factors1.Fertilityis the ability of fertilized ovum to developOnly fertile eggs have ability to hatch!exception- parthenogenesis (turkey eggs)-Copulation (cloacal kiss)= male deposits sperms on everted oviduct of female-Sperm swims up oviductto infundibulumwhere union with germ spot on ovum occurs (fertilization)-Peak fertility = 2 weeks after first mating-Fertility declines within 1 to 2 weeks after male removal-A.I. in turkeys!-Female chickens have sperm host glandsholds sperm for weeks and continue to lay fertile eggs the whole time!Cell Divisions: 1stand 2ndin ISTHMUSContinues in UTERUS or SHELL GLANDAt ovipostion several cells are presentDo not set eggs right awaylet them alone for 4-10 days at 60-65F*The longer an egg sits, the thinner the white will be*Fertile and Infertile Egg:On Yoke there is a fertility spot, defined circle = FERTILE, diffuse circle = INFERTILE2. Factors that influence fertility ( thus, included in list of pre-lay factors that affect hatchability since only fertile eggs hatch)Sperm/ egg quality...
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course ANTH 1001 taught by Professor Tague during the Spring '07 term at LSU.
- Spring '07
- Physical Anthropology