TEST 2 - TEST 2: All Material Thursday, February 15, 2007...

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Unformatted text preview: TEST 2: All Material Thursday, February 15, 2007 9:57 PM Principles of Classification in Primate Taxonomy 1. Speciation o Defined by reproductive capabilities 2. Systematics and Taxonomy o Definitions Systematics- study of relationships among organisms Taxonomy- science of classification of organisms 3. Linnaeus devised the taxonomic scheme we use today o Categories Kingdom (Anamailia) Phylum (Chordata) Class (Mammalia) Order (Primates) Family (Hominidae) Genus (Homo) Species (Sapiens) o When referring formally to a species, write both the genus and species names. Capitalize genus and lower case species Underline or italicize both names 4. Two differences in the use of taxonomy between Linnaeus and modern biologists. o The concept of the species To Linnaeus, there was no fundamental difference among the taxonomic categories Each group of organisms (taxon) has its own unique "essence". An essence is a suite of traits that uniquely distinguishes each taxon. Therefore, species differ among themselves in their essences. If two or more species have partial overlap of their essences, then they may be classified together in the same genus. Each genus, therefore has a unique essence, and may overlap with another genus to make a family. Classification was based upon shared traits. Consequently, there was no fundamental difference among categories. Modern biologists regard species category as fundamentally different from higher taxonomic categories (genus - kingdom). The species category consists of real groups or organisms of species themselves that are true identifiable biological units. Species is the unit of evolution. In contrast, the higher taxonomic categories (genus - kingdom) are not real biological units, simply human constructs Because categorization of species into higher taxonomic groups is based on a researcher's opinion, there may be different taxonomic classifications o Evolutionary Implications Linnaeus was a Creationist and to him species did not evolve Taxonomy made communication easier and facilitated discussion among biologists by providing exact reference to groups of organisms Demonstrated the order in nature fashioned by the creator Modern Biologists use taxonomy to make evolutionary statements Species that share close phylogenetic relationship may be categorized in the same genus. Phylogeny- evolutionary line of descent or ancestor-descended relationships Two limitations on making phylogenic statements using taxonomy Cannot express exact ancestor-descendent relationship Cannot express chronology (time element) 5. Prosimian- lemurs, lorises, tossiers 6. Anthropoid- N.W. monkeys, O.W. monkeys, apes and humans 7. Platyrrhine- N.W. monkeys 8. Catarrhine- O.W. monkeys, apes, and humans 9. Hominoid- apes and humans 10. Hominid- humans There are more species of monkeys than any other primate, therefore monkeys are the most...
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TEST 2 - TEST 2: All Material Thursday, February 15, 2007...

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