Final - Ch 1 Muhammad the Quran Messenger Message 1.5...

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Ch. 1: Muhammad & the Quran – Messenger & Message1.5 billion Muslims; 1 out 4 people on our planet are MuslimIslam is a Semitic, prophetic religious traditions that share an uncompromising monotheism, and belief in God’s revelations, His prophets, ethical responsibility and accountability, and the Day of Judgment2 Major divisionsoSunni - 85% of the world of MuslimsoShii – 15%Muhammad & the Muslim Community: ArabiaThe peoples of Arabia (nomadic/ sedentary) lived in a Bedouin tribal society and cultureSocial organization & identity were rooted in membership in an extended family. oClansoA Chief (shaykh)Mecca possessed a central shrine of the gods, the Kaba, a cube-shaped building that housed the 360 idols of tribal patron deities, and was the site of a great annual pilgrimage and fairValue system or ethical code is described as being Tribal HumanismoA way of life with origins that were not ascribed to God, but were the product of tribal experience or traditions. Muhammad: Prophet of GodMuhammad ibn Abdullah – born 570 C.E.Orphaned at a young ageoFather, trader, died before he was bornoMother, died when he was only six years old. Muhammad met his first wife, Khadija, as working for her as a caravan business manageroShe was 40, he was 25 years old15 years of marriageoHad 3 sons (1 died at birth), 4 daughtersFatima – married Ali, 4thcaliph of Sunni Islam & 1stlegitimate Imam (leader) of Shii IslamMt. Hira, where the cave was where Muhammad received the call.o“The Night of Power and Excellence”First of many revelations from GodReceived divine revelations over period of 22 years (610 - 632)oThese messages were collected and written down in the Quran (“the recitation”)
Creation of the Islamic CommunityFor almost 10 years, Muhammad struggled in Mecca, preaching to a small groupoAmong the early converts (followers):Ali, cousin & son-in-lawAbu Bakr, first caliph (successor to the prophet) & father-in-lawMuhammad at MedinaMuhammad initiated a series of raids against Meccan caravans, threatening both the political authority and the economic power of the Quraysh. oA number of battles happened as a result:In 624 at Badr, Muslim forces who were outnumbered defeatedthe Meccan armyBattle of BadrIt was the first and a most decisive victory for the forces of monotheism over those of polytheism, for the army ofGod over the followers of ignorance and unbelief. Battle of Uhud in 625Muslims lost and Muhammad was wounded. Battle of the Ditch in 627Meccans mounted an all out siege of Medina to crush their opposition once for all. In 630, Muhammad accused the Quraysh of breaking the treaty, the Muslims marched on Meccan with 10koThe Meccans converted to Islam, accepted Muhammad’s leadership, and were incorporate with in the umma.

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