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Lab1_E field and potential_220116_RA_blank.docx - Lab 1....

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Lab 1. Electric Fields and PotentialsLab Group No:________________Name:________________________Name:______________________Name:____________________Student ID:___________________Student ID: __________________Student ID: ________________Note: Please obtain your instructor’s signature by demonstrating your work.[1mark]ObjectivesInvestigate the spatial distribution and shape of equipotential surfaces near oppositely chargedelectrodes, construct electric field lines perpendicular to the equipotential lines.Determine the dependence of the magnitude of electric field (E) on the distance from chargedelectrodes.BackgroundElectrostaticsstudy the phenomena arising from stationary or slow-moving electric charges. Thisincludes powerful lightning storm, spontaneous explosion of grain silos, the damage of electroniccomponents during manufacturing, to the operation of photocopiers. The spatial distributions ofelectricfieldandvoltage potentialare the most frequent subjects of classical electrostatic problems.AnElectric Field (E)is a region of space in which a charge would be acted upon by anelectric force. Ifa charge q at a certain point is acted on by the forceF, the electric fieldEat that point is definedas the ratio betweenFand q:´E=´FqEis avector quantity, with the direction of the force on a positive charge. TheunitofEis thenewton per coulomb (N/C) or, more commonly, the equivalent unit volt per meter (V/m).Electric Field linesare used to describe a force field, by using imaginarylines. The direction of an electric field line at any point is the direction ofthe force that would be exerted on a positive test charge placed at that pointin space. Field lines are close together where the field is strong and far apartwhere the field is weak. For example, in Figure.1, the Electric Field,surrounding a positive point charge, has field lines directed radiallyoutward, and it has the larger magnitude at Point A than at Point B.The rules for drawing electric field lines are as follows:Figure 1
Physics-2The lines must begin on a positive charge and terminate on a negative charge. In the case of anexcess of one type of charge, some lines will begin or end infinitely far away.The number of lines drawn leaving a positive charge or approaching a negative charge isproportional to the magnitude of the charge.No two field lines can cross.Thepotential difference (V)between two points in an electric field is the amount of work needed totake a charge of 1 C from one of the points to the other. A battery uses chemical reactions to produce apotential difference between its terminals; a generator uses electromagnetic induction for this purpose.V=WqThe unit of potential difference is the volt (V),1volt=1joule/coulombThe electric field is a measure of the rate change of the electric potential with respect to position. Fortwo points separated by a very small distance∆ xwith potential difference∆Vbetween thepoints, the electric field E isE=dVdx=∆V∆ xNote: This lab is a numerical simulation for electrostatic field. The measured equipotential lines lie on atwo-dimensional plane of your paper instead of three-dimensional surfaces.

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Term
Spring
Professor
professor_unknown
Tags
Electrostatics, Magnetic Field, Electric charge

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