Chapter 11 - Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 14th...

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CHAPTER 11 The Muscular System Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 14 th Edition
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Skeletal muscles produce movements by exerting force on tendons. Tendons attach to and pull on bones, and movement occurs How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement
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Most muscles cross at least one joint and are attached at the articulating bones When a muscle contracts, it draws one articulating bone toward the other Origin – the attachment to the stationary bone Insertion – the attachment to the moveable bone Origin and Insertion
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Bones serve as levers and joint serve as fulcrums The lever is acted on by: o Resistance o Effort Lever Systems and Leverage
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Third-class levers are most common in the body Types of Levers
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Muscle fibers are arranged in parallel bundles within fascicles but the arrangement of fasciculi in relation to the tendon can vary Fascicular arrangement is correlated with: The amount of power of a muscle can produce The range of motion a muscle can produce Muscles with parallel fascicle arrangements shorten the most, but are not usually very powerful The greater the number of muscle fibers, the greater the power - Bipennate and multipennate muscles shorten very little but are extremely powerful Effects of Fascicle Arrangement
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Arrangement of Fascicles
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Most muscle movements are coordinated by several skeletal muscles acting in groups rather than individually, and most skeletal muscles are arranged in opposing pairs at joints Agonist/prime mover – causes desired action Antagonist – causes opposing action Synergist (Fixator) - stabilizes the origin so prime mover is more efficient Coordination Within Muscle Groups
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