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Notes, for final - The Roaring 20's Modernity and its...

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The Roaring 20’s Modernity and its Discontents Objectives: 1. To discuss modernism and the Second Industrial Revolution 2. To discuss the reaction to modernity Progressivism- increase role of state before and during World War I New ways or “ordering” society Government becomes more active in managing economy, restricting expression, and enforcing morality. Schizophrenic decade – very divided and contradictory Defined by cultural and industrial progress Reaction to modernity and a return to traditional values This split defines the decade Post- World War I 1919 – Third Comintern (Third Communist International) Calls for worldwide revolution As a result – all radicals, anyone who disagrees with government, labeled as “Bolsheviks” America is scared May 1, 1919, mayday work day – 36 bombs mailed to “capitalist” targets (Rockefeller, etc.) June 2, 1919 – 8 bombs go off – including one at Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer Trying to overthrow capitalists The Red Scare Palmer – scared to death of Communists Alien Act of 1918- to deport foreign subversives Palmer Raids – late 1919 – 11 industrial cities, 249 individuals deported Wants to stop radicals by getting radicals out of country 1920 – 6,000 arrested in 33 cities – 600 deported Legal immigrants deported Chilled free speech and showed adverse effects of progressivism High point of progressivism, WWI This deters free speech and the fear of an activist state – Red Scare is worst case scenario
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Election of 1920 Red Scare upsets people Democrats – John Cox/Franklin D. Roosevelt o Ticket could appeal to progressives and non-progressives GOP – Warren Harding/Calvin Coolidge o Run against Wilsonian internationalism and “return to Normalcy” GOP wins – 404 electoral votes to 127 o 60% to 34% - 16.1 million to 9.1 million 1920’s A Decade of Prosperity A. Second Industrial Revolution Tech innovations = more production, less labor More factories get electricity o 1919 – 30% estimated o 1929 – 70% estimated Roaring 20s Driven by auto industry 1913 – Ford Motor Company – Model T o First car working class could afford o Cars before 1913 were luxury vehicles for rich and recreation 1927 – Rover Rouge plant opens o Perfected assembly line – single facility o Drove cost down, cuts shipping costs, because factory would make all parts o No variability in color or tires etc. this cause efficiency in price o Costs a year’s wages General Motors – under Alfred Sloan CEO o Could not compete with Ford o So uses marketing techniques to compete o More choices – color, engine, etc. o Cadillac – high class, chevy – working class o “Model a Year” o Brand names for different incomes By 1929 – auto industry most productive in U.S.
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