NS_115_Study_Outline_for_Prelim_1

NS_115_Study_Outline_for_Prelim_1 - NS 115 Study Outline...

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NS 115 Study Outline for Prelim 1 Do not worry about lecture 1 it was just to help you with your papers. LECTURE September 3 The autonomic nervous system has two branches: The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic systems Parasympathetic (blue): assimilates energy, when you are calm your body is functioning under parasympathetic control. -neurotransmitter: acetlycholine -has discrete neurons linking from the brain to the body system Sympathetic (red) : the “fight or flight” reaction -neurotransmitter: norepinephrine (adrenaline) -system does not have discrete neurons, rather they are networked so that once one part of the system is set off the whole system gets set off. Eye: OPENS VS CLOSES Vision: DISTANCE/ ELONGATES VS UP CLOSE/ CONTRACTS Tears: INHIBITS VS STIMULATES Salivary Glands: INHIBITS VS STIMULATES Heart rate: STIMULATES VS INHIBITS Blood flow: INCREASE BLOOD FLOW (large muscles, heart, lungs, and brain) DECREASE (digits, and GI tract) Lungs: INCREASE BREATHING RATE VS DECREASE BREATHING RATE Bronchial tubes: DIALATES TUBES VS CONSTRICTS Stomach: Gastric Tone(constriction): TIGHTENS VS RELAXES Mucous secretion: DECREASES VS INCREASES Gastric Acid: INHIBITS VS STIMULATES Esophageal Sphincter tone: DECREASES VS INCREASES Pancreas: Insulin: INHIBITS VS RELEASES Glucagon: RELEASES VS INHIBITS Liver: Glucose metabolism: Glucogneogenesis ( WILL MAKE MORE SUGAR TO BE USED BY MUSCLES ) VS Glycongenesis ( WILL STORE SUGAR AS GLYCOGEN OR FAT ) Intestines: Motility: INHIBITS VS FACILITATES LECTURE September 5 - Sight and smell start digestive process, your salivary glands will be activated to function as a lubricant, antibacterial agent, and start digestion (lipases and amylases). - Mastication is important to break down particles of food and increase SA (surface area) of food so that digestive enzymes can readily work on it. - Lipase - breaks triglycerides (fats) into fatty acids and glycerol.
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- Amylase - breaks starches into disaccharides or simple sugars. - Taste - infants can taste sweet, sour, and bitter but not salt (baby food disaster tangent) - Artificial sweetners (saccharin (causes cancer in lab rats), aspartame, acesulfame, suralose, sorbitol) - Swallowing - you swallow a bolus (food + saliva) by peristalsis motion (a constriction/relaxation method) - Heimlich maneuver - know that a real choking person cannot call for help. LECTURE September 8 Vagus nerve - group of parallel nerves to the esophagus that signal the esophageal sphincter to be held tight. This action can be voluntarily controlled. TNF (tumor necrosis factor)- if toxin gets into stomach cells or if a purger aggravates esophagus this factor will be released. TNF activates the chemo-trigger zone which closes the pyloric sphincter (the sphincter where the stomach empties into the small intestine) and opens the esophageal sphincter which will purge food from the stomach.
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  • Fall '05
  • LEVITSKY
  • Fatty Acids, blood glucose, insulin receptors, blood glucose rises

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