NS_115_Study_Outline_for_Prelim_1 - NS 115 Study Outline...

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NS 115 Study Outline for Prelim 1 Do not worry about lecture 1 it was just to help you with your papers. LECTURE September 3 The autonomic nervous system has two branches: The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic systems Parasympathetic (blue): assimilates energy, when you are calm your body is functioning under parasympathetic control. -neurotransmitter: acetlycholine -has discrete neurons linking from the brain to the body system Sympathetic (red) : the “fight or flight” reaction -neurotransmitter: norepinephrine (adrenaline) -system does not have discrete neurons, rather they are networked so that once one part of the system is set off the whole system gets set off. Eye: OPENS VS CLOSES Vision: DISTANCE/ ELONGATES VS UP CLOSE/ CONTRACTS Tears: INHIBITS VS STIMULATES Salivary Glands: INHIBITS VS STIMULATES Heart rate: STIMULATES VS INHIBITS Blood flow: INCREASE BLOOD FLOW (large muscles, heart, lungs, and brain) DECREASE (digits, and GI tract) Lungs: INCREASE BREATHING RATE VS DECREASE BREATHING RATE Bronchial tubes: DIALATES TUBES VS CONSTRICTS Stomach: Gastric Tone(constriction): TIGHTENS VS RELAXES Mucous secretion: DECREASES VS INCREASES Gastric Acid: INHIBITS VS STIMULATES Esophageal Sphincter tone: DECREASES VS INCREASES Pancreas: Insulin: INHIBITS VS RELEASES Glucagon: RELEASES VS INHIBITS Liver: Glucose metabolism: Glucogneogenesis ( WILL MAKE MORE SUGAR TO BE USED BY MUSCLES ) VS Glycongenesis ( WILL STORE SUGAR AS GLYCOGEN OR FAT ) Intestines: Motility: INHIBITS VS FACILITATES LECTURE September 5 - Sight and smell start digestive process, your salivary glands will be activated to function as a lubricant, antibacterial agent, and start digestion (lipases and amylases). - Mastication is important to break down particles of food and increase SA (surface area) of food so that digestive enzymes can readily work on it. - Lipase - breaks triglycerides (fats) into fatty acids and glycerol.
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- Amylase - breaks starches into disaccharides or simple sugars. - Taste - infants can taste sweet, sour, and bitter but not salt (baby food disaster tangent) - Artificial sweetners (saccharin (causes cancer in lab rats), aspartame, acesulfame, suralose, sorbitol) - Swallowing - you swallow a bolus (food + saliva) by peristalsis motion (a constriction/relaxation method) - Heimlich maneuver - know that a real choking person cannot call for help. LECTURE September 8 Vagus nerve - group of parallel nerves to the esophagus that signal the esophageal sphincter to be held tight. This action can be voluntarily controlled. TNF (tumor necrosis factor)- if toxin gets into stomach cells or if a purger aggravates esophagus this factor will be released. TNF activates the chemo-trigger zone which closes the pyloric sphincter (the sphincter where the stomach empties into the small intestine) and opens the esophageal sphincter which will purge food from the stomach. Purging Problems-
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This note was uploaded on 10/06/2007 for the course NS 1150 taught by Professor Levitsky during the Fall '05 term at Cornell.

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NS_115_Study_Outline_for_Prelim_1 - NS 115 Study Outline...

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