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DEMOCRATIZATION IN SOUTH KOREA AND INTER-KOREAN RELATIONS
SOUTH KOREAN PRESIDENT1. President Lee: 1948.07 ~ 1960.042. President Yun : 1960.08 ~ 1962.033. President Park: 1963.12 ~ 1979.104. President Choi : 1979.12 ~ 1980.085. President Chun: 1980.09 ~ 1988.026. President Roh (Tae-woo): 1988.02 ~ 1993.02 7. President Kim (Young-sam) : 1993.02 ~ 1998.028. President Kim (Dae-jung): 1998.02 ~ 2003.02 9. President Roh (Moo-hyun): 2003.02 ~ 2008.0210. President Lee (Myung-bak): 2008.02 ~
SOUTH KOREA’S DEMOCRATIC TRANSITIONPolitical liberalization in South Korea in the mid-1980’s was not prompted by a fatal split between hard-liners and soft-liners within the power elite.The election of Kim Dae-Jung as president in 1997 bolstered the confidence of those in political circles and civil society who wanted to put out peace feelers to the North, but also augmented the suspicion of many in South Korea’s government and security apparatus who were raised to regard North Korea as an implacable foe.* Mansfield and Snyder: democratizing states tend to be belligerent, because both old and new elite often resort to nationalist/ideological appeals to mobilize mass allies to defend their threatened positions and stake out new ones, and then found that the masses, once mobilized, are difficult to control.
FOREIGN POLICY MAKING IN POST-CHANGE SOCIETIESMaking foreign affairs decisions in the open, especially in times of change to long-standing international political and economic relationships, turned inter-Korean interaction into a more salient topic of public debate than it would otherwise be.South Korea already had rather well-developed state bureaucracies and representative institutions, which made the democratization process there a lot less chaotic than in many countries with similar settings.South Korean politicians needed to rely much less on reckless nationalistic or ideological appeals to the masses in order to establish or maintain their authority.
SOURCES OF CHANGE IN INTER-KOREAN RELATIONSSouth Korean civil society developed in reaction to the authoritarian rules at the national level.Radical movements and organizations involved in promoting inter-Korean reconciliation and cooperation that came into being with the resurrection of civil society after June 29, 1987included the National Association for Democracy and National Reunification.