chem rev. - 1 Review Introduction to College Chemistry:...

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1 General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry Review Introduction to College Chemistry: Some General Concepts
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2 General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry Atoms and molecules make up all matter (substances and mixtures). Protons and neutrons are located at the center of an atom (at the nucleus ). Electrons are dispersed around the nucleus. Atoms and Subatomic Particles Review
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3 General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry Atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes . The atomic number ( Z ) is the number of protons in the nucleus of a given atom of a given element. The mass number ( A ) is an integral number that is the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in an atom. The number of neutrons = A Z . Isotopes A E Z Review
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4 General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry The Modern Periodic Table Review
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5 General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry Wavelength ( λ ) ( m , or nm ) Frequency ( v ) ( hertz ). Wavelength and Frequency Amplitude c = λ v Review
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6 General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry The smallest amount of energy, a quantum , is given by: E = hv where Planck’s constant, h, has a value of 6.626 × 10 –34 J·s. Planck’s quantum hypothesis states that energy can be absorbed or emitted only as a quantum or as whole multiples of a quantum, thereby making variations of energy discontinuous. Einstein explained photoelectric effect. Quantum Description of Light Review
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7 General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry • Electron energy ( E n ) was quantized. Each specified energy value is called an energy level of the atom: E n = –B/n 2 n is an integer, and B is a constant (2.179 × 10 –18 J) The negative sign represents force of attraction . The energy is zero when the electron is located infinitely far from the nucleus. Bohr’s Hydrogen Atom Review
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8 General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry The Bohr Model of Hydrogen E = - B ( - ) 1 1 n f 2 n i 2 Review E = h ν
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9 General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry An acceptable solution to Schrödinger’s wave equation is called a wave function. A wave function represents an energy state of the atom. A wave function with a given set of these three quantum numbers is called an atomic orbital . Wave Function and Quantum Numbers Review
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10 General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry The orbital angular momentum quantum number (l) : Determines the shape of the orbital. Can have integral values from 0, 1, 2, … (
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course ENGL 1303 taught by Professor Solak during the Spring '07 term at University of Houston.

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chem rev. - 1 Review Introduction to College Chemistry:...

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