Ch21_Lecture - GEOL 1401 -Chapter 21 Origins of Modern...

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05/06/09 GEOL1401/tob 1 GEOL 1401 -Chapter 21 Origins of Modern Astronomy Dr. Thomas O. Bush Roberts 116 thomasobush@comcast.net 214-333-5318
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05/06/09 GEOL1401/tob 2
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05/06/09 GEOL1401/tob 3 Early history of astronomy Ancient Greeks Used philosophical arguments to explain natural phenomena some observational data Geocentric or "Earth-centered" view motionless sphere center of the universe Stars were on the celestial sphere Transparent, hollow sphere Celestial sphere turns daily around Earth Seven heavenly bodies (planetai) Changed position in sky The seven wanderers included the Sun Moon Mercury through Saturn (excluding Earth)
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05/06/09 GEOL1401/tob 4 Early history of astronomy Aristarchus (312-230 B.C.) first Greek to profess a Sun-centered, or heliocentric, universe Planets exhibit an apparent westward drift retrograde motion Occurs as Earth, with its faster orbital speed, overtakes another planet
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05/06/09 GEOL1401/tob 5 Early history of astronomy Ptolemaic system - A.D. 141 Geocentric model To explain retrograde motion, Ptolemy used two motions for the planets Large orbital circles, called deferents, and Small circles, called epicycles
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05/06/09 GEOL1401/tob 6 The universe according to Ptolemy, second century A.D.
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05/06/09 GEOL1401/tob 7 Birth of modern astronomy 1500s and 1600s -Five noted scientists Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) Concluded Earth was a planet Constructed a model of the solar system that put the Sun at the center, but he used circular orbits for the planets Ushered out old astronomy
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05/06/09 GEOL1401/tob 8 Birth of modern astronomy Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course GEOL 1401 taught by Professor Thomasbush during the Spring '08 term at Dallas Baptist.

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Ch21_Lecture - GEOL 1401 -Chapter 21 Origins of Modern...

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