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Biology Lecture 6 - Introduction to Macromolecules...

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Introduction to Macromolecules Structure and Function
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Macromolecules Large molecules built from smaller molecules Four main classes of large biological molecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids
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Macromolecules Polymer (ex. train): carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids Long molecules consisting of many similar building blocks Monomer Small molecules that are the building blocks of a polymer
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Polymer: Monomer Carbs: sugar/monosaccharide Proteins: amino acids Nucleic Acids: nucleotides
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Making and Breaking Polymers Chemical mechanisms used to make and break polymers are basically the same for all macromolecules Monomers join together via condensation reactions called dehydration reactions Lose water
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Making Polymers Condensation reaction (dehydration reaction) (a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer HO H 1 2 3 HO HO H 1 2 3 4 H H 2 O Short polymer Unlinked monomer Longer polymer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Figure 5.2A
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Breaking Polymers Polymers are disassembled by hydrolysis Hydrolysis= to break with water Hydrolysis is basically the reverse of the dehydration reaction
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