rogerspersonality - CARL ROGERS(1902-1987 PHENOMENOLOGICAL...

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CARL ROGERS (1902-1987)PHENOMENOLOGICAL, HUMANISTIC, CLIENT CENTERED
WHO WAS CARL ROGERS?He grew up on an Illinois farm in a conservative Christian Home. He was an American full of optimism(go west young man!).He studied agriculture, theology, education, and psychology.He conducted ground breaking research on the therapeutic process, and taught that nontherapists could be taught the basic skills to be effective helpers.
HOW DID HE VIEW HUMAN NATURE?People are positiveand worthy of respect. Their conscious sense of the world can be trusted(contrast with Freud!).Although Rogers was not a Christian in his later life, his positive view is in part consistent with scripture: We are created by God. We are “fearfully and wonderfully made.” “What is man that you are mindful of him? You made him a little lower than the angels and crowned him with glory and honor.”
FREUD’S VIEW OF HUMAN NATUREFreud of course was more negative, and the Bible also gives some credence to this view: “What a wretched man that I am; who will deliver me from this body of death?”What is yourperspective? How can you find a balance between Freud and Rogers?
HOW DO YOU VIEW HUMAN NATURE?Freud could be considered overly negative and Rogers overly positive. I think the Bible presents a more balancedview—we have bothpositive and negative elements that are in conflict.
SOME KEY CONCEPTSPhenomenology: Study of your conscious perception of the worldSelf”: The self concept; your perceptionof yourself. (“Self” is not “you” or “a little person inside”—it is your self concept.)Ideal Self:The self you most want to be.Self Actualization: Our basic drive toward growth and wholeness (contrast with Freud—sex and aggression!).
INHERENT GROWTH If given the right conditions–-soil, water, air and sun-- the tree will grow naturallyand “actualize”. Artificial structure is not needed.This is an important principle for human growth.
SOME KEY CONCEPTS (2)Organism:The person—the naturally experiencing person.Humanism: Originallya philosophically positive view of human nature, but today maytake the form of secularhumanism” which excludes the role of God.
ROGERS’ STRUCTURESelfIdeal Self (the self you most want to be)I would note that one’s natural organismic experience”could also be considered part of the structure
EXPERIENCE” IS INTERNALIN TWO IMPORTANT WAYS:Although we think of experience happening “out there”, such external experiences are always subjectively perceived, thus in some sense are internal.

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