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DurkheimMechanical Solidarity -Based on an adhesion of resemblance-Glue of mechanical solidarity is likeness, sameness, or homogeneity-The horde and clan-based societiesoIdeal type of society bound by resemblance is the hordeThe horde: undifferentiated mass of people, a swarmWe start as indistinct members of a hordeWe don’t start as the utilitarian tradition teaches us a lone individuals: atomized,self-constituted, autonomous, independent and then coming together thru socialcontracts-A collective common conscience oAdhesion based on resemblance, this mechanical solidarity is founded on what Durkheim terms a strong “common conscious” oCommon or collective conscious is a supra-individual sensibility, a collective sensibilityoPhenomenology of the collective conscious It is prescription, proscriptive, and pre-discursiveIt is our taken-for-granted, common sense-Features of mechanical solidarity oSocieties with this form of solidarity are based on simple kinship structures—bloodlinesoCommunism is the economic form taken by this social typeoThese societies are radically egalitarianoThere is no need for hierarchy or leadershipThe horde (ideal form of mechanical solidarity) was leaderlessCentralization may appear in these primitive forms with out greatly changing the form of solidarityIn these cases, the leader or eminent organ, stands as a symbolic representation of the whole oAll is shared—material and spiritual oMost importantly, all tasks are shared and rotated-Mechanical solidarity and autonomy oAll members of society perform the same tasks as all others in a society, as a simple machine as it wereoThe actions of one follow mechanically from the rest—automaticallyoMembers are machine like, automatonsoParadoxically, however, the members or collection of members of these societies are potentially autonomous -Mechanical solidarity oTraditional societyoSocial cohesion produced by similar and overlapping tiesoPeople in community have similar occupations oLittle specialization or division of labor oEx. Farming societyThis is a more traditional society, based on generations of teaching and customs and there is a relatively low division of labor (or individuals dependent on others to finish the job)
Organic Solidarity -The structure of societies where organic solidarity is preponderant is totally other—it is based on division of labor-These societies are constituted by a system of different organs each with its special role-These organs or differentiated parts are linked by their inter-working, and some may be subordinate to others-These societies lose their simple religious identity-Individuals are grouped according to the particular nature of their social activity-Society is held together by function-How organic solidarity developso“When this new organization begins to appear, it utilizes the existing organization and assimilates it”oDurkheim gives two examples of this development1. Blood lines turned to functional role