Durkheim - Durkheim Mechanical Solidarity Based on an adhesion of resemblance Glue of mechanical solidarity is likeness sameness or homogeneity The

Durkheim - Durkheim Mechanical Solidarity Based on an...

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Durkheim Mechanical Solidarity - Based on an adhesion of resemblance - Glue of mechanical solidarity is likeness, sameness, or homogeneity - The horde and clan-based societies o Ideal type of society bound by resemblance is the horde The horde: undifferentiated mass of people, a swarm We start as indistinct members of a horde We don’t start as the utilitarian tradition teaches us a lone individuals: atomized, self-constituted, autonomous, independent and then coming together thru social contracts - A collective common conscience o Adhesion based on resemblance, this mechanical solidarity is founded on what Durkheim terms a strong “common conscious” o Common or collective conscious is a supra-individual sensibility, a collective sensibility o Phenomenology of the collective conscious It is prescription, proscriptive, and pre-discursive It is our taken-for-granted, common sense - Features of mechanical solidarity o Societies with this form of solidarity are based on simple kinship structures—bloodlines o Communism is the economic form taken by this social type o These societies are radically egalitarian o There is no need for hierarchy or leadership The horde (ideal form of mechanical solidarity) was leaderless Centralization may appear in these primitive forms with out greatly changing the form of solidarity In these cases, the leader or eminent organ, stands as a symbolic representation of the whole o All is shared—material and spiritual o Most importantly, all tasks are shared and rotated - Mechanical solidarity and autonomy o All members of society perform the same tasks as all others in a society, as a simple machine as it were o The actions of one follow mechanically from the rest—automatically o Members are machine like, automatons o Paradoxically, however, the members or collection of members of these societies are potentially autonomous - Mechanical solidarity o Traditional society o Social cohesion produced by similar and overlapping ties o People in community have similar occupations o Little specialization or division of labor o Ex. Farming society This is a more traditional society, based on generations of teaching and customs and there is a relatively low division of labor (or individuals dependent on others to finish the job)
Organic Solidarity - The structure of societies where organic solidarity is preponderant is totally other—it is based on division of labor - These societies are constituted by a system of different organs each with its special role - These organs or differentiated parts are linked by their inter-working, and some may be subordinate to others - These societies lose their simple religious identity - Individuals are grouped according to the particular nature of their social activity - Society is held together by function - How organic solidarity develops o “When this new organization begins to appear, it utilizes the existing organization and assimilates it” o Durkheim gives two examples of this development 1. Blood lines turned to functional role

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