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HISTORY08TEST2 - NOTES Thetigernotes.com Descartes...

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NOTES - Thetigernotes.com Descartes & Deductive Reasoning Rene Descartes (1596-1560) Discourse on Method ( 1637) “I think therefore I am”- the ability to think is the basis for human existence . Cartesism said the world can be turned into 2 substances: Mind or Matter o Matter could be discovered and described and discovered mathematically Materialist approach- Descartes begins with his own existence and then argues that the existence of the material universe and God can be deduced …. Start with the smallest object to the knowledge of the more complex object…believed that god created the universe like a clock maker who made the universe with certain rules and god has stepped back and just watches it. Mathematics= foundations of all science … eventually a rule for every phenomenon could be discovered Newtonian Synthesis Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Principia , The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687) – very first synthesis of scientific principles – conducted a lot of experiments on his family farm. . he was sitting under a tree thinking about celestial motion and he makes a connection and observes an apple falling from a tree and he connects the force that makes things fall to earth and celestial motion … demonstrates that earthly and celestial motion are subject to laws that could be described by mathematical formulas… which will become mechanics Theory of universal gravitation- argued that there were forces of attraction and repulsion operating between objects and he concluded that Kepler’s laws of planetary motion would be correct if the planets were being pulled toward the sun by a force who’s strength was an inverse proportion to their distance from it and he figured that the pull form the moon had something to do with the ocean tides He also concluded that every particle of matter attracts every other part of matter with a force proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance that separates them
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Other Advances- calculated the average density of the earth, first person to suggest electrical messages activate the nervous system he also anticipated some of the ideas that 200 years latter would form thermodynamics and quantum theory . He also understood all colors are a mix of primary colors … he also explains the phenomenon of the rainbow and he calculates sounds waves for the first time and invented calculus… proposed that light could be mathematically described and analyzed and was considered the beginning of theoretical physics …. Spread of Newtonian thought spread and they clashed with the Cartesians and Newton rejects Descartes theory of Materialism and disagrees with gods theory of Clock Maker The Culture of Science “Republic Of Science” – scientist that exchange letters and they begin to have meetings and lectures people are buying books and creating their own personal libraries and public experiments …get theses learned associations that provide a focal point for exchange of
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HISTORY08TEST2 - NOTES Thetigernotes.com Descartes...

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