Psychology test 2

Psychology test 2 - Psychology test 2 Notes Notes Feb-25...

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Give $ Psychology test 2 Notes Notes Feb-25 Types of Consequences Positive Reinforces- adding something to the situation that increases the likelihood that the behavior will recur Negative Reinforces-taking away something from the situation that decreases the likelihood the behavior will recur + - R P Positive Punishment- give something Negative punishment- take away something Problems with punishment Conditions for punishment to work o Swift o Certain- if I do this I will get punished o Sufficient without being cruel o Seen as being deserved
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Drawbacks o Only suppresses behavior o Unpleasant emotions o May convey notion that hurting others is okay Cognitive Learning Cognitive learning- depends on mental processes that are not directly observable Edward Tolman coined term latent learning – not immediately reflected in a behavior change o Tolman’s rat study First group found pellets in end box- rewarded Second group found nothing in the end When Tolman took some of the unreinforced rats and gave them food at the goal box., almost immediately they started running the maze as well as the rats in the first group. Their learning was latent- stored internally in some way but not yet reflected in their behavior Insight – learning that occurs rapidly as a result of understanding all the elements of the problem o Learning suddenly shoots up from unsuccessful trail and error to instant success o Wolfgang Kohler’s chimpanzee study Placed a chimp in a cage with a banana just outside the cage, but not within reach Several items in cage, including sticks
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Sometimes quite suddenly , chimp would grab the stick, poke it through bars of cage and drag banana within reach. Learning by observing Social learning theory- emphasizes ability to learn by observing a model or receiving instructions, without firsthand experience by learner o Observational learning Why don’t we imitate everything we observe other people do? You must not only see but also pay attentions to what the model does You must remember what the model did You have to convert what you learned into action Vicarious reinforcement and vicarious punishment- experienced by models- affects willingness of others to perform behaviors they learned by observing those models Bobo Doll study Albert Bandura randomly divided a group of 66 nursery- school children (33 boys and 33 girls) into 3 groups of 22 children each o Each child individually watched a film of adult abusing a bobo doll o 3 conditions of how the movie ended Model- reward condition- saw model get candies, soft drinks, and praise from a second adult. Vicarious reinforcement Model –punish condition- saw second adult shaking their finger at model, scolding and spanking model. Vicarious punishment No- consequences condition- film ended with scene of aggression
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Immediately after seeing film, kids were individually escorted into another room where they found a doll, rubber balls, a mallet and many
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course PSYCH 2000 taught by Professor Domangue during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Psychology test 2 - Psychology test 2 Notes Notes Feb-25...

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